sleep & dreaming

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Sleep & Dreaming. Why do we sleep? Restorative vs Adaptive Hypotheses. effects of sleep deprivation. TED talks: why we sleep. circadian rhythms. Suprachiasmatic nucleus . Circadian Rhythms and the…. Entrained by zeitgebers - SCN controls timing of sleep, not sleep itself. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sleep & DreamingWhy do we sleep?

Restorative vs Adaptive Hypotheseseffects of sleep deprivationTED talks: why we sleep

circadian rhythmsCircadian Rhythms and the

Suprachiasmatic nucleus Entrained by zeitgebers - SCN controls timing of sleep, not sleep itself

SCNPineal Glandmelatonin

Retinal ganglion cells containing melanosporin respond to lightRetinohypothalmic pathwayAlso regulated by on-off genesIn the SCNUltradian Rhythms

betaSleepwalkingBedwettingnightterrorssleepingwalking, nightterrors, bedwetting

REM and DreamingThe purpose of REM sleep

1. perchance to dream

2. promote neural development during childhood

3. memory consolidation Non-REM sleep The purpose of slow wave sleep

1. rest and restoration of the body

2. cool down the brain

3. restore cognitive function, prefrontal cortex recovery

Neuronal replay in hippocampus is highest duringnon-REM sleepDuring REM, memory traces are transferred to cortexThis process may take 4-7 days to become permanentsleep & memoryWhat puts us to sleep

Key Concepts to knowThe NT adenosine inhibits arousal in the basal forebrain

Adenosine warms cells in the preoptic area which helpsto induce sleep

Neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus inhibitactivitity of several structures in the pons

tuberomammilary nucleus, PPT/LDT, LC, raphe nucleus

Info from pons goes to the magnocellular n. (in the Medulla) to induce atonia

What wakes us up

Pathway 1: PPT/LDT stimulates structures in the ponsThese structures then send info to the cortexThis pathway also shifts EEG to the arousal state

Pathway 2: Pons structures (Locus coeruleus, raphe n., tuberomammilary n., ) and basal forebrain stimulate the cortex so it can better process input from the thalamus. The lateral hypothalamus stimulates the basal forebrain and pons structures. The LH does this by releasing the peptide orexin.

Key Concepts to know

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