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Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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ADANA CEMENT SLAG CEMENT

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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SLAG CEMENT

EN 197-1

CEM III TYPE CEMENTS

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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Special Type Cements Able to be used in All the Fields

Durable, High Strength, Resistant to Hazardous Chemicals and Environment-Friendly

Produced By

SLAG CEMENT

GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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PART I Page Granulated Slag Production in Turkey 1 Types of Cement Where the Blast Furnace Slag is used in Turkey and Sales Figures for 2006 1 Clinker and Cement Production Capacity of Adana Cement Plant 5 Market Distribution for CEM III Type Cement of Adana Cement Plant 5 Packaging and Shipping Capacity of Adana Cement Plant 5 PART II Page WHAT IS THE PRIMARY PRODUCT? What are Granulated Slag and Slag Cement? 6 SLAG CEMENT USE IN THE CONCRETE Where are the Concretes Produced with CEM III Type Cement used? 12 CEM III Type Cement Content for Different Concrete Types, Formulations and Results of Physical Tests 13 Technical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of CEM III Type Cement in the Concrete 14 Comparison of the Sulphate Resistance of CEM III/A Type Cements with Different Cement Types 21 Rules of Casting and Maintenance for the Concrete Produced with CEM III Type Cement 24 Concrete Impermeability 26 References 27

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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PART I Granulated Slag Production in Turkey ERDEMR

Granulated Slag (t/year)

SDEMR Granulated Slag

(t/year)

KARDEMR Granulated Slag

(t/year)

Total

Types of Cement Where the Blast Furnace Slag is used in Turkey and Sales Figures (2006) Cement Type Domestic

(t) Abroad

(t) Total

(t)

TOTAL 16.505.704 524.305 17.030.009

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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Slag Cement (CEM III Type According to EN 197-1 Standard)

ADANA CEMENT PLANT: Establishment Date : 05.10.1954 Commencement of Activity : 26.05.1957 Clinker Production Capacity : 2.300.000 Ton/Year Cement Production Capacity : 5.500.000 Ton/Year

1- Head office 2- skenderun 1

3- skenderun 2

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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Technological Efficient

World Standards Respectful for Environment

Reliable

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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SKENDERUN GRINDING AND PACKAGING PLANT: skenderun grinding and packaging plant was established by TOSAN on 17 September 1974. The plant began to operate over an area of 163.330 m

2 under the name Turkey Cement Industry (Trkiye imento Endstrisi) in

Karaylan sub-district of skenderun. On 2 December 1992, it was acquired by the OYAK-SABANCI partnership, and its title was changed to OYSA skenderun imento Sanayii ve Ticaret A.. On 1 May 2007, it was acquired by OYAK Adana Cement Plant and was renamed as Adana Cement skenderun Plant. While the cement grinding capacity of skenderun-1 Plant was 1.000.000 ton/year, the total grinding capacity reached 2.000.000 ton/year after the commissioning of skenderun-2 Plant in 2009.

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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ADANA CEMENT PLANT Clinker and Cement Production Capacity

CAPACITY ADANA (Plant)

SKENDERUN 1 SKENDERUN 2 TOTAL

Clinker Production Capacity (t/year)

2.300.000 2.300.000

Cement Production Capacity (t/year)

3.500.000 1.000.000 1.000.000 5.500.000

Market Distribution for Slag Cement Domestic Abroad TOTAL

Market Distribution (t/year) 500.000 1.500.000 2.000.000

Packaging and Shipping Capacity (From sdemir Port) 2009

BULK SLING/BIG-BAG

Packaging and Shipping Capacity (t/day)

10.000 2.000

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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PART II What are Granulated Slag and Slag Cement?

Granulated Slag Granulated slag is the hydrated blast furnace slag. It is then dried and ground in fine powder form. The raw material is a byproduct of iron-steel industry and obtained from the blast furnace. Iron ore, limestone and coal are charged into the blast furnace where they will reach the temperature of about 1500

0C. The raw materials are converted to molten iron and blast

furnace slag. These two products are separated in natural ways; the iron sinks down the bottom of the blast furnace, while the slag floats and disperses over iron. Thus, they may be run from two separate faucets. Slag Cement The blast furnace slag cement is used in the world in order to increase the strength of the concrete and reduce the costs. The concretes that contain blast furnace slag cement have less permeability, low hydration heat, better operability and processability, higher strength, and higher resistance to hazardous chemicals and hazardous attacks in many forms as compared to the common concrete. The use of the ground blast furnace slag in the slag cement ranges between 36% and 95%. According to the Standard EN 197-1, there are 3 types of blast furnace slag cement. Components of CEM III Type Cements

Cement Type Composition (weight ratio)

Main Components Secondary Additional

Components Clinker (K) Blast Furnace Slag (S)

Blast Furnace Slag Cement

CEM III/A 35-64 36-65 0-5

CEM III/B 20-34 66-80 0-5

CEM III/C 5-19 81-95 0-5

Iron ore, coke and limestone

Hot air

Slag

Iron Molten Slag

Molten Iron

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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Benefits of the Concretes Produced with Blast Furnace Slag Cement

Hydration The reaction between blast furnace slag cement and water is a complicated process. This involves the activation of the slag with alkalis and sulphates in order to form its hydration product. Some of these are combined with Portland Cement product in order to form additional hydrate with the effect of pore inhibition. As a result, this type pore distribution provides the concrete containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag with a less open hydrate structure and lower permeability than the concrete containing Portland Cement. Such low permeability greatly increases the resistance of the ground blast furnace slag to sulphate and weak acid attacks. The reinforced concretes that contain ground blast furnace slag resist much better to chloride permeability. Hydration Heat

Thermal Cracks Gradual hydration of the slag cement releases lower heat as compared to Portland cement. The use of ground blast furnace slag at a rate of 70% of the total cement in particular significantly reduces the heat increase in the castings with thick cross-section. The corresponding reduction in the critical heat differences minimizes the risk for early thermal structural cracks. Thermal Crack

Hydration Heat Q [J(/h.g.)]

Time (hours)

Slag

Slag

Slag

Temperature (0C)

Age (days)

Portland Cement

Cement with 70% Slag

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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Chlorine Permeability The low permeability concretes reduce the potential for the chlorine to penetrate into the concrete to cause the reinforcement to undergo corrosion. Since the reinforcement, which is embedded in the concrete, is in contact with the concrete, a chemical reaction takes place between the steel reinforcement and the concrete, resulting in a protective layer around the steel reinforcement. This passive layer protects the steel reinforcement against corrosion. If the concrete cracks, some detrimental salts pass through the concrete and penetrate into the steel reinforcement and thus cause the steel reinforcement to undergo corrosion. The corrosion of the steel reinforcement embedded within the concrete leads to volumetric expansion and as a result, the fractures occur. Steel reinforcement in the concrete is protected by the alkalinity of the hardened cement adhesion. The ingress of chlorine reduces this very important protection and the corrosion takes place due to the presence of oxygen and moisture. The ground blast furnace slag concrete is significantly more resistant to the diffusion of chlorine than the Portland Cement of the same grade. Thus, the structures exposed to chloride benefit from the improved strength and longer useful lifetime. Chlorine Permeability (%)

Effect of Salt The salt (NaCl) has been used on the roads against snow and icing since early 1960. Today, the impermeable membranes must be used against the corrosive effect of the chlorides likely to result from the salting. However, this necessity is neglected in many constructions and the membrane is not used. The salting method is applied on the reinforced concrete roads as well as retaining walls, bridges and parapets.

Portland Cement

Cement with 70% Slag

Cement with 40% Slag

Age (months)

Slag Cement Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

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In the following graph, the concrete penetration depth of chloride resulting from salting is expressed for 20 years. Chlorine Content of the Cement (%)

Sulphate and Acid Attack Sulphate attack is one of the most important factors that influence the concrete. Upon the contact of sulphate-containing waters with the concrete, the sulphate ions penetrate into the concrete. Sulphate solutions naturally occur in soil, sea water and ground water and also in the waters output from the w

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