SKELETON, MUSCLES, AND SKIN

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SKELETON, MUSCLES, AND SKIN. PROTECTION - INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. The Skin (Largest organ of the body) is composed of all four types of body tissues: EPITHELIUM lining of organ CONNECTIVE made of collagen and elastin protein fibers NERVE transmit impulses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>The Skin (Largest organ of the body) is composed of all four types of body tissues:</p><p>EPITHELIUM lining of organ</p><p>CONNECTIVE made of collagen and elastin protein fibers</p><p>NERVE transmit impulses</p><p>MUSCLE associated with hairs</p></li><li><p>The Skins Roles1. Regulates Body Temperature</p><p>A. Blood vessel dilation and constriction</p><p>B. Sweat cools the body</p></li><li><p>2. Protects body from injury and disease3. Sense Organ6. Produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight4. Removes wasteproducts5. Layer of fat insulatesthe body</p></li><li><p>I. EPIDERMIS Outer thin layer</p><p>A. OUTER LAYER Dead cells</p><p>B. INNER LAYER Living cells </p><p>MELANOCYTES Produce melanin (colors and protects skinby absorbing UV light)2. KERATINOCYTES Produce keratin (tough fibrous protein that waterproofs the skin) </p><p> Structures of the Skin</p></li><li><p>II. DERMIS inner, thicker layer of skin; contains collagen fibers, blood vessels, smooth muscle, nerves, sweat glands, hair follicles, and oil glands*Sweat Glands Regulate body temperature and excrete wastes in sweat*Sebaceous Glands Produce sebum (oily) Keeps skin flexible and waterproof</p></li><li><p>III. SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER (hypodermis) </p><p>Below the dermis;</p><p>Contains fat which cushions, insulates, retains heat and stores energyFANCY WORD FORFAT!!!!</p></li><li><p>HAIR</p><p>HAIR FUNCTIONS - Protects and provides insulation</p><p>2. Prevents particle from entering the body (in nose and ear)*Produced from hair follicles in thedermis *Hair is dead cells filled with keratin</p><p>*Oil glands keep hairs from becoming brittleHAIR FOLLICLEOIL GLAND</p></li><li><p>Nails form from nail rootMade of keratinNAILSFingernails grow 4X as fast as toenails!</p></li><li><p>SKIN DISORDERSCARCINOMAS Skin cancers in non-pigmented cells Usually high cure rate</p><p>MALIGNANT MELANOMA In pigmented cells Usually low cure rates</p></li><li><p>ACNE Clogged oil duct and infection </p><p>PSORIASIS Inherited; Rapid growth of Epidermal cells causing scaly white skin</p></li><li><p>FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM1. Provides a framework</p><p>2. Protects internal organs</p><p>3. Efficient movement</p><p>4. Produces blood cells</p><p>5. Stores minerals</p></li><li><p>STRUCTURE OF BONECOMPACT BONE -Hard layer of bone under the membraneSPONGY BONE -Less dense bone; adds strength without mass; under compact bone at ends of long bones and in middle of short flat bonesPERIOSTEUM Outside membrane; supplies nutrients and oxygen to bone</p></li><li><p>Soft tissue filling center spaces in most large bones </p><p>Two Types:1. RED MARROW - Makes blood cells;Mainly found in flat bones and ends of long bones</p><p>2. YELLOW MARROW - Mainly fat, can make blood cells if needed; in center of long bonesBONE MARROWGREEN BOXESSHOW MARROWCAVITY</p></li><li><p>BONE STRUCTURE</p></li><li><p>Formation of Bones - Ossification </p><p>Bone from cartilage cells which are in protein fibers of tough collagen and flexible elastin</p><p>Immature bones (OSTEOBLASTS) secrete minerals that replace cartilage in response to force</p></li><li><p>In compact bone, layers of collagen and calcium salts form around hollow channels called HAVERSIAN CANALS that contain blood vessels and nerves</p><p>Bone cells are trapped in the rings and are then called OSTEOCYTES (mature bone cells)HAVERSIAN CANALOSTEOCYTEOSTEOCLASTS break down bone so it can be rebuilt by osteoblasts </p></li><li><p>Growth Plates</p><p>In the ends of long bones</p><p>Cartilage grows causing an increase in thelength of the bone</p><p>Growth continues until cartilageis replaced by bone</p><p>In adults, cartilage is still found in ears, nose, where ribsattach to sternum </p></li><li><p>GROWTH PLATES IN THE HAND AND WRIST</p></li><li><p>AFFECTS OF AGE ON THE SKELETAL SYSTEMOSTEOPOROSIS - Loss of bone mass; more common in older woman When work of osteoclasts and osteoblasts isnt balanced, bones are weakened. </p></li><li><p>HEALING OFBROKEN BONES</p></li><li><p> HUMAN BODY HAS 206 BONES</p><p>Two Main Parts -</p><p>1. AXIAL SKELETON - Bones of skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum</p><p>2. APPENDICULAR SKELETON - Arms, legs, shoulders, pelvis </p></li><li><p>JOINTS Where two bones meetCan be movable or immovable (fixed) STRUCTURES OF MOVABLE JOINTS:LIGAMENTS (connect bone to bone)TENDONS (connect muscle to bone)SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE produces synovial fluid to lubricateBURSA sac of SYNOVIAL FLUID for shock absorption and reducing friction CARTILAGE end of bones</p></li><li><p>THREE MAIN TYPES OF JOINTS1. IMMOVABLE Little or no movement skull</p><p>2. SLIGHTLY MOVABLE Limited movement- vertebrae</p><p>3. FREELY MOVABLE AllowsMovement in one or more directions:A. Ball and socket- shoulderB. Hinge- kneeC. Pivot- neck to headD. Saddle- thumbE. Gliding- foot</p></li><li><p>Pivot - A ring of bone rotating around another bone. For example, the neck. Ball-and-Socket - Allows movement in all directions. For example, the shoulder joint. Hinge - Allows the joint to bend and straighten, but does not rotate. For example, the elbow joint. Ellipsoid - A less flexible version of the ball-and-socket joint. For example, the wrist joint. Saddle - Fit together to allow all movements except rotation. For example, the thumb joint. Gliding - Two generally flat surfaces gliding over each other. For example, the joints between the tarsals of the foot. TYPES OFMOVEABLEJOINTS</p></li><li><p>COMMON PROBLEMS WITH JOINTSSPRAINS - Injury due to forcible twisting</p><p>ARTHRITIS -Inflammation of joint</p><p>BURSITIS -Inflammation of the bursaRHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Immune system attacks joints and deposits bone in them</p></li><li><p>THREE TYPES OF MUSCLE1. SMOOTH - Found in internal organs and blood vessels</p><p>Involuntary slow contractions </p></li><li><p>2. CARDIAC MUSCLE -</p><p> Found in heart</p><p> Striped (Striated)</p><p> Involuntary</p><p> interconnected for rhythmic contractions</p></li><li><p>3. SKELETAL MUSCLE -</p><p> Attached to bones to move them</p><p> Voluntary and consciously controlled by the central nervous system Striped (Striated)with dark and light bands</p></li><li><p>MAKING THE SKELETON MOVEORIGIN End attached to stationary bone</p><p>INSERTION End attached to moving bone which moves toward the originMuscles work in opposing pairs (ANTAGONISTIC)FLEXOR Bends the jointEXTENSOR Straightens the joint </p></li><li><p> STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLES</p><p>Skeletal muscle is composed of MUSCLE FIBERS, Composed of smaller structures (MYOFIBRILS)</p><p>Muscle fiber</p></li><li><p>Composed of two types of smaller structures (FILAMENTS):</p><p>A. Thick Filaments - Protein MYOSIN</p><p>B. Thin Filaments - Protein ACTIN</p><p>Alternating myosin and actingive striped appearance ofmuscle </p></li><li><p>SARCOMERE Section of myofibril containing actin and myosin and bound by Z lines which are discs attached to actin </p></li><li><p>SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY </p><p>Actin filaments slide towards each other during contraction as myosin heads attach to actin bending inwardMYOSIN</p></li><li><p>Exercise tones muscle and increases strength by increasing the size of the fibersEnergy comes from ATP from aerobic cellular respirationWhen there isnt enough oxygen </p><p>Anaerobic respiration </p><p>Lactic acid (causes cramping until more oxygen is available)</p></li><li><p>Muscle Sprain Torn or overly stretched muscle, ligament or tendon</p><p>Muscle Strain Pulled muscle; overstretching usually because not warmed up</p><p>Tendonitis Inflammation of tendonsMuscle Injuries</p><p>****************************************</p></li></ul>