six ways to teach culture effectively

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  • 1.Six Ways to Teach Culture Effectively Ann Wintergerst Joe McVeigh NYSTESOL Melville, NY October 28, 2011

2. Joe McVeigh Ann Wintergerst 3. 1. Have students articulate their own definition of culture 4. Have students articulate their own definitions of culture

  • Definitions of culture

5. Have students articulate their own definition of culture

  • Products, practices, and perspectives
  • Artifacts, actions, and meanings (Moran, 2001)
  • A set of basic ideas, practices, and experiences that a group of people share

6. Have students articulate their own definition of culture

  • The shared beliefs, norms, and attitudes that guide a group of peoples behavior and help explain their world (DeCapua & Wintergerst, 2004)
  • A complex frame of reference that consists of patterns of traditions, beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and meanings that are shared to varying degrees by interacting members of a community (Ting-Toomey, 1999)

7. Have studentsarticulate their own definition of culture (3) 8. Have students articulate their own definition of culture

  • Culture = an integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristic of the members of any given society. Culture refers to the total way of life of particular groups of people. It includes everything that a group of people thinks, says, does and makesits systems of attitudes and feelings. Culture is learned and transmitted from generation to generation (Kohls, 1996)

9. 2. Explore the differences between spoken and written language 10. Explore the differences between spoken and written language

  • Differences in spoken and written language
  • Cultures first relied on the spoken word
  • Invention of writing: new ways of thinking and communicating

11. Explore the differences between spoken and written language

  • What are some characteristics of spoken English?
  • What are some characteristics of written English?

12. Activity 2

  • Oral and written English (handout p. 3)

13. (Kramsch, 1998) CONVERSATIONAL SPEECH EXPOSITORY WRITING

  • transient, not permanent
  • permanent, can be retrieved
  • additive; items from prior turn-taking talk are attached; participants build on the utterances of others
  • hierarchically ordered and generally linear in nature
  • aggregative, uses formulaic expressions to maintain dealings between speakers
  • avoids formulaic expression, but promotes analysis
  • superfluous or wordy; vocabulary and ideas are repeated
  • avoids redundancy; too much repetition is not considered appropriate
  • grammatically loose
  • grammatically tightly structured
  • focus is on people; attempts to involve the listener
  • focus is on the topic
  • dependent on context
  • reduced and away from context

14. Features of spoken language

  • Clustering
  • Reduced forms
  • Performance variables
  • Colloquial language
  • Rate of delivery
  • Stress, rhythm, and intonation
          • (Brown, 2007)

15. Rhetorical patterns in writing across cultures (Kaplan, 1966) 16. Differences between spokenand written language

  • Cultural thought patterns vary and persist in written text
  • Our writing students cannot tell what is appropriate in written English
  • Speech-like abbreviations used by students in sending text messages add to the difficulty
  • BICS & CALP(Cummins, 1979)

17. What the teacher can do

  • Help students explore differences between spoken and written language:
    • Elicit some of the differences from students themselves
    • Make use of examples from text messages and from students own writing
    • Examine different genres of speaking and writing
  • Differences to note
    • Spoken language is relatively informal, repetitive, and interactive. Speakers may take long pauses, talk over others, or interrupt each other
    • Written language is relatively formal, more concise, and less repetitive

18. Activity 2

  • Oral and written English (handout p. 2)

19. 3. Explore kinesics, movement, and gestures in non-verbal communication 20. Explore kinesics, movement, and gestures in non-verbal communication

  • Kinesics the study of body movement (Birdwhistell, 1970)
  • Variance of meaning of body language across cultures: East Asia, Middle East, Latin America
  • Use and quantity of gestures and facial expressions vary by culture

21. Explore kinesics, movement, and gestures in non-verbal communication

  • Oculesics eye behaviors including gaze, blinking, winking, glancing
  • Is eye contact desirable or not? What does it mean if someone makes eye contactor does NOT make eye contact?

22. Explore kinesics, movement, and gestures in non-verbal communication

  • Multi-active vs. quiet group people (Lewis, 2000)

BODY PART MULTI-ACTIVE QUIET-GROUP Eyes close eye contact staring, rude, avoid Arms / hands expressive, gesticulating insincere, overdramatic Walking style bouncy, swaggering neutral Feet stamping to show anger boredom, rudeness 23. Activity 3: How do you say . . .?

  • Stand in a circle
  • You state action: students demonstrate without talking
  • How would you _________?
  • Agree; answer yes; disagree; answer no; show uncertainty; point to self: ask someone to come here; indicate that someone is crazy.
  • Debrief show appropriate gesture in target culture

24. 4. Recognize the causes and stages of culture shock 25. Recognize the causes andstages of culture shock

  • Cultures share some basic cultural concepts
  • Other concepts are seen as irrational or even contradictory
  • Basic cultural concepts help students interact successfully and diminish culture shock
  • Assimilation when the new culture and its beliefs and valuesreplacethe original culture
  • Acculturation adapting to a new culture whilenot giving upones existing cultural identity

26. Four stages of acculturation

  • thehoneymoon stage- excitement & euphoria
  • the aggressive stage orculture shock distress, unhappiness
  • theadjustment stage- gradual adaptation
  • - therecovery stage new culture accepted
    • (Oberg,1960)

27. Causes of culture shock

  • the loss of familiar cues
  • the breakdown of interpersonal communication
  • an identity crisis exaggerated by cultural differences
  • (Weaver, 1993)

28. Culture shock

  • Graphic visualizations to depict the stages of culture shock:
    • The U curve
    • The W curve
  • Intensity and length of symptoms vary from person to person
  • Culture shock is the norm for anyone learning a second language in a second culture (H. D. Brown,1999)

29. What the teacher can do

  • Assure students that culture shock is a normal part of the acculturation process. Let students know that others experience the same thing.
  • Help students reflect on situations that have led them to experience culture shock.
  • Share the teachers own experiences in encountering a new culture.

30. Activity 4: Stages of culture shock

  • Steps:
  • Discuss the basic concepts of cultural adjustment with your class.
  • Draw a diagram to represent culture shock and explain it.
  • Explain that with time people move through the stages of cultural adjustment.
  • Ask the class to think about their experiences in a new culture. Have them write down a few notes about their ideas and share them with others.
  • An important goal of this activity is to reassure students that culture shock is normal.

31. 5. Counter the effects of culture shock 32. Counter the effects of culture shock

  • Understand the process of adjustment
  • Develop coping strategies
  • Learn something new
  • Have realistic expectations
  • Develop skills to facilitate understanding, communication & adaptation
  • (Weaver, 1993)

33. Counter the effects of culture shock

  • An active and reflective approach to create a positive experience
  • Things I can do on my own
  • Things I can do with other people
  • Things I can remind myself of
  • Things I have already done here
  • Ways I can improve my language skills
  • (Storti & Bennhold-Saaman, 1997)

34. Counter the effects of culture shock

  • Get to know

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