simultaneous determination of amiloride hcl, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol in combined...
Post on 04-Jul-2016
Embed Size (px)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis17 (1998) 877884
Simultaneous determination of amiloride HCl,hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol in combined formulations by
C.V.N. Prasad, C. Parihar, K. Sunil, P. Parimoo *Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, India
Received 29 September 1997; accepted 10 October 1997
Keywords: Amiloride HCl; Hydrochlorothiazide; Atenolol; Simultaneous determination; Derivative Spectroscopy
A combination of amiloride HCl (AMH), hy-drochlorothaizide (HTZ) and atenolol (ATL) inthe form of a tablet or capsule preparation iswidely used for moderate to severe hypertensionnot controlled by a single antihypertensive agent.The official monographs describe the procedurefor individual assay of AMH , HTZ , ATL as well as AMH and HTZ combination .
There are reports on the derivative spectropho-tometric method for simultaneous determinationof AMH and HTZ [3,4], a reversed phase HPLCmethod for the simultaneous determination ofAMH, HTZ and ATL . However, no spec-trophotometric method has been reported for thequantitative determination of these drugs fromtheir combined formulations.
In recent years, derivative spectrophotometryhas been found to be a useful method in the
determination of mixtures with two or more com-ponents having overlapping spectra and in elimi-nating interference from formulation matrix byusing the zero crossing technique . Further-more, derivative compensation methods [11,12]have also been found to be useful in the estima-tion of drugs from their mixtures. In the presentpaper, we describe the utilization of first deriva-tive zero crossing points for the simultaneousdetermination of AMH, HTZ and ATL in thepresence of each other, as well as of theexcipients.
2.1. Standard solutions
The stock solution of pure AMH, HTZ andATL were prepared by dissolving 5 mg of each ofthe pure drugs in 10 ml of methanol. Appropriatevolume aliquots of HTZ and ATL were trans-* Corresponding author.
0731-7085:98:$19.00 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
C.V.N. Prasad et al. : J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 17 (1998) 877884878
Fig. 1. Absorption spectra of: (a) amiloride HCl (1.25 mg ml1); (b) atenolol (25 mg ml1); (c) hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg ml1);and (d) their mixture spectrum.
ferred separately into 10 ml volumetric flasks. Thevolumes were made up with 0.1 N HCl to give aseries of equimolar solutions containing 7.515.0
mg ml1 of HTZ and 1530 mg ml1 of ATL.The dilutions of AMH were prepared by transfer-ring 5 ml of the above prepared stock solution
C.V.N. Prasad et al. : J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 17 (1998) 877884 879
Fig. 2. First derivative spectra of: (a) amiloride HCl (1.25 mg ml1); (b) atenolol (25 mg ml1); and (c) hydrochlorothiazide (12.5mg ml1).
into a 10 ml volumetric flask and diluting tovolume with methanol to give a second stocksolution. Appropriate volume aliquots of AMHwere transferred from the second stock solutioninto 10 ml volumetric flasks. The volumes weremade up with 0.1 N HCl to give a series of
equimolar solutions containing 1.255.0 mg ml1of AMH.
Similarly, three series of 10 ml of each mixturewere also prepared in 0.1 N HCl from the stocksolutions. The first series contained a constantconcentration of HTZ (12.5 mg ml1), ATL (25
C.V.N. Prasad et al. : J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 17 (1998) 877884880
Fig. 3. First derivative mixture spectra of amiloride HCl (1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.0 mg ml1; curves 14) with a constantconcentration of atenolol (25 mg ml1) and hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg ml1).
mg ml1) and a varying concentration of AMH(1.255.0 mg ml1), while the second series con-tained a constant concentration of ATL (25 mg
ml1), AMH (1.25 mg ml1) and a varying con-centration of HTZ (7.515.0 mg ml1). Finally,the third series contained a constant concentra-
C.V.N. Prasad et al. : J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 17 (1998) 877884 881
Fig. 4. First derivative mixture spectra of hydrochlorothiazide (7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 mg ml1; curves 14) with a constantconcentration of atenolol (25 mg ml1) and amiloride HCl (1.25 mg ml1).
tion of HTZ (12.5 mg ml1), AMH (1.25 mgml1) and a varying concentration of ATL (1530 mg ml1). The absorbance of the solutionswere taken within 3 h of their preparation. Allreagents used were of analytical grade.
2.2. Sample preparation
Twenty tablets of Beta-Biduret (Crydon, India)labelled as containing 50 mg of ATL, 25 mg ofHTZ, 2.5 mg of AMH and excipients were accu-rately weighed and powdered and a powderweight equivalent to 25 mg of ATL (correspond-ing amount of HTZ 12.5 mg and AMH 1.25 mg)was dissolved in methanol by thorough mixing
and diluted to volume in a 50 ml of volumetricflask. Similarly, 20 capsules of Hipres-D (Cipla,India) labelled as containing 50 mg of ATL, 25mg of HTZ, 2.5 mg of AMH and excipients wereaccurately weighed, mixed and a powder weightequivalent to 25 mg of ATL (correspondingamount of HTZ 12.5 mg and AMH 1.25 mg) wasdissolved in methanol by thorough mixing anddiluted to volume in a 50 ml of volumetric flask.
The extracts were filtered separately throughWhatman No. 1 filter paper. The first and last 5ml of each filtrate was discarded. The samplesolutions of 10 ml of each ATL were prepared in0.1 N HCl by transferring appropriate amounts ofeach filtrate to obtain an equimolar solution con-
C.V.N. Prasad et al. : J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 17 (1998) 877884882
Fig. 5. First derivative mixture spectra of atenolol (15, 20, 25 and 30 mg ml1; curves 14) with a constant concentration ofhydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg ml1 ) and amiloride HCl (1.25 mg ml1).
taining approximately 25 mg ml1 of ATL andcorresponding amounts of HTZ (12.5 mg ml1 )and AMH (1.25 mg ml1).
The stock and sample solutions were measuredin the range of 220380 nm with a Jasco 7800UV-visible spectrophotometer against the acidicsolution as blank. The suitable settings were a scanspeed of 480 nm min1 and chart speed of 10 nmmin1 were maintained. The first derivative spectrawere recorded by using SavizkyGolay 
parameter of D15 points. No smoothing ofspectra was found necessary. Ordinate maxima andminima were adjusted to the magnitude of deriva-tive values and then measured at 243.6, 308.6 and375.0 nm for ATL, HTZ and AMH, respectively.
3. Results and discussion
The zero order spectra of pure drugs was found
C.V.N. Prasad et al. : J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 17 (1998) 877884 883
Table 1Statistical analysis of the determination of amiloride HCl, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol in a mixture by first derivativespectroscopy
r Variance (S02) Standard errorDrug name DLb mg ml1Regression equations
0.9999 3.76E-09AMH 5.72E-06D14.00E-03.Ca-7.45E-09 (375.0 nm) 1.67E-06 0.0330.9999 5.00E-11 6.33E-06D13.99E-04.Cb-9.99E-04 (308.6 nm) 5.46E-07HTZ 0.038
ATL 0.9999D11.20E-03.Cc-1.86E-08 (243.6 nm) 3.76E-09 2.30E-05 9.94E-07 0.111
Number of samples, n10; b, level of significance at P0.05; Ca, Cb and Cc, concentration of drugs in mg ml1.
to be overlapping, making simultaneous determi-nation difficult (Fig. 1). In contrast, the firstderivative (D1) spectra of each pure drug wasfound to show zero crossing points (ZCP; Fig. 2)and assisted in their simultaneous estimation.The first derivative wavelengths considered were375.0 nm for AMH, 308.6 nm for HTZ and243.6 nm for ATL. The negligible absorption ofATL, HTZ at a wavelength of 375.0 nm made iteasier for the estimation of AMH and a wave-length of 308.6 nm being a ZCP for ATL, AMHdid not interfere in the measurement of HTZ. Ina similar manner, a wavelength of 243.6 nm wasconsidered for the determination of ATL being aZCP to HTZ, while AMH did not show anyappreciable absorption at a selected concentra-tion level of 1.25 mg ml1 and its contribution tothe absorption of the mixture was considered tobe negligible. This enabled the linear concentra-tion range for estimation from combined prepa-ration to be chosen.
The proportionality of D1 values and concen-trations of AMH, HTZ and ATL were found bymeasuring D1 values of ten pairs of pure solu-tions and mixtures at the selected wavelengths.The derivative curves for mixture solutions were
obtained by considering a mixture of two drugswith a constant concentration as a single compo-nent and the other as the second componentwith varying concentration showed a linear re-sponse to analyte concentrations at the selectedwavelengths (Figs. 35).
The linear regression equations together withcorrelation coefficients, variance, detection limits(DL) at P0.05 level of significance , stan-dard error of slope and intercept obtained foreach drug are shown in Table 1. Thus, it wasevident from the values obtained that the inter-cept values did not differ significantly from zeroin each case.
The D1 height values of standard solutions ofAMH (1.25 mg ml1, h1), HTZ (12.5 mg ml1,h2) and ATL (25 mg ml1, h3) at the selectedwavelengths were used in the determination ofanalytes from their sample preparation. Theseresults are given in Table 2. They indicated thatthere was no interference from the formulationmatrix and also suggested that the complexproblem of quantitating drugs from mixtureshaving two or more components with overlap-ping spectra can be solved by this technique. Thesolutions were stable throughout the study.
Table 2Assay results of amiloride HCl, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol in combined formulations by first derivative spectroscopy
AMH (375.0 nm) HTZ (308.6 nm) ATL (243.6 nm)Sample
mg per tab:caps % Recoveryamg per tab:caps % Recoverya m