shrimp in aquaculture

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Presentation by Karen Jensen Marine Aquaculture 2013. Shrimp in Aquaculture. Common Saltwater Species. Whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Family Penaeidae. Giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. Economic importance. World production of captured and farmed shrimp is ~6 million tons - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Shrimp in Aquaculture

Shrimp in AquaculturePresentation by Karen JensenMarine Aquaculture 2013Common Saltwater SpeciesFamily Penaeidae

Whiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannameiGiant tiger prawnPenaeus monodon

Economic importanceWorld production of captured and farmed shrimp is ~6 million tons25-30% of worldwide saltwater shrimp production is in pondsTexas produces the most of any state- 8 million lbs in 2001Florida has the largest hatcheriesPenaeus vannamei aquaculture has boomed in recent years2011: 2,877,542 tons producedMarket price decreasing, 3-3.5 USD/kg in 2005Main suppliers to US: Thailand, Ecuador, India, China, VietnamPenaeus monodon2011: 662,453 tons producedMarket price in Japan: 9-14 USD/kg in 2004Life cycleAfter hatching 6 nauplius stagesAttracted to light, feeds on yolk3 zoea stages3 mysis stagesPostlarvae are carried to the protection of estuaries

Development through larval stages takes ~3 weeksJuveniles and adults migrate offshore and mature in the oceanAlso spawn offshoreFemales grow faster and larger

Reproduction in captivityMany hatcheries collect gravid females from the sea to spawn in captivityNo control of genetics, disease tolerance Captive maturation can be doneLarge tank at low density: 5-7 shrimp per meterConstant conditions- temp, pH, light, good nutrition- are important for maturationEyestalk ablation in females

After spawning, the female releases eggs into the water, fertilizing them by simultaneously rupturing the spermatophore 150,000-200,000 eggs per spawn (P. vannamei)500,000-750,000 eggs/spawn (P. monodon)

To induce ovarian maturation- Gonad inhibitory hormone produced in the eyestalk5Production methodsHatcheriesEggs hatch within 24 hoursAfter hatching, nauplii are stocked into V or U-shaped tanks~3 weeks to reach postlarval stageNurseriesSmaller ponds or intensive raceways act as an intermediate between hatchery and grow-out sizeNot always usedMost US prawn farms are semi-intensive or intensive pondsMust make up for land costs, short growing seasonExtensive ponds common in South/Central America, where land is cheaperPonds stocked in April/MayStocked at post-larval stage,

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