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Trees, Tables, and other information graphics. Showing Complex Data. Art of Information Graphics. Communicate visually rather than verbally Show rather than tell User’s can use their eyes and minds to draw their own conclusions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Showing Complex Data

Showing Complex DataTrees, Tables, and other information graphicsArt of Information GraphicsCommunicate visually rather than verballyShow rather than tellUsers can use their eyes and minds to draw their own conclusionsWhen done well can be much more effective than displaying verbal data, especially for complex data setsTypes of Information GraphicsPower of InteractivityWe are dealing with computers not printed informationUse pop-ups, animation, etc to hide and show information to the userLet the user modify, sort, etc describe the data as they see fit to increase their ability to comprehend the data set.Make the user a participant in the information discover process

Good Interactive Information GraphicsClearly shows how the data is organizedClearly shows what is related to whatClearly shows how to explore the dataClearly shows how the data can be rearrangedShows only what is needed to be knownAllows the user to determine specific data valuesData Organizational ModelsData RelationshipsWhats Related to What Preattentive Variables?Visual features that convey information before the view pays conscious attention to themGestalt principles of similarity and continuity are most often use to convey these relationshipsData RelationshipsPreattentive Variables

Data RelationshipsPreattentive Variables

Data RelationshipsPreattentive Variables

Data RelationshipsPreattentive Variables - Example1.1787390.6991940.8740420.2913080.783570.7459080.0290790.5217370.6650480.7768720.2994370.5857890.0925861.0556520.9650670.0214140.6195810.3938141.0702110.3065910.4311110.1769730.7816441.0420080.7931461.0772110.7874160.3842321.1559471.1047491.0921460.817390.9155591.012080.8890610.5096370.3020290.8726030.285450.594680.5804841.1504451.0341820.0628970.4711850.5448970.0031431.0119450.5810410.2650650.7272550.310250.2669970.7414080.6004161.0408540.6007230.5525690.5899780.1984440.2480.7326010.694750.5160551.1124180.617390.2919551.1367490.3797530.5471650.0045650.3395880.3996370.7981551.0446510.4575680.2810850.3071150.4576190.4704440.2420940.3621860.6270880.9037840.6225420.6444470.5039840.2671170.1013650.7595580.3861181.0151490.3814230.8640150.9567020.7386390.2713521.0688670.2179011.0818660.3287740.3348430.5453050.5883970.8031790.9283430.5030750.2819740.2849080.5986750.5442830.7815710.2037470.3170190.2225590.0938070.9137250.2682720.8991770.3198250.0689070.0408480.0575940.1521160.9650710.1483140.8579750.0755070.9052550.0543910.5421750.1733760.1929870.2352870.4436160.4409080.0353351.0197020.8481720.2642280.914750.8175660.0521360.1977270.0161050.4327650.5920270.0531950.8499490.3313460.9684280.8381171.0659950.7698640.909440.6684040.7688330.2680520.3987130.6578090.4577860.566451.0322070.0947621.0829791.049810.8145910.8359530.7505380.0002130.4611110.219110.1128730.6722910.0510960.140640.7128320.0492310.1045511.0625680.5060720.5452430.7034850.1661710.7878570.2160911.0291210.7537350.7573840.9670380.2410390.3843560.3415260.9611321.0215031.0234090.6241470.1502290.1066620.7611851.0508320.6557061.0716610.1942371.0830820.3535121.0288940.0420280.2604810.8042180.7944510.5076210.5916140.2689410.4082610.986109Data RelationshipsPreattentive Color

Data RelationshipsAbility of preattentive color to scale

Data RelationshipsUse of multiple preattentive variables

Navigating and Exploring the DataScroll and PanDrag or Scroll the viewable area until a point of interest is visibleZoomChange the scale of the viewed section or point of interestOpen and close points of interestExpand/Collapse to points of detail and interestDrill down into points of interestDrilldown/drillup to points of detail and interest

Sorting and Arrangement of DataChoosing a good sort value, or letting the user define it, can by a good method of arranging data in a useful mannerCommon types of sort: Alpha, Numeric, Date, Time, Location, Category/Tag, Popularity, Custom, etcSorting and Arrangement of DataSorted by Location (Alpha)

Sorted by Value

Searching and Filtering the DataHighly InteractiveRespond quickly to users searching and filteringIterativeUser refines search, query, filter until the result set is idealContextualShows results in context with surrounding data to make it easier for a user to understandShowing Specific Data ValuesLabelsValues shown directly in graphicNames on a Map, Values on a chart, etcLegendsLegends are used when color, texture, linestyle, symbol, etc, represent the data values in the graphicAxes, Rulers, Scales, TimelinesUsed when position represent valuesDatatipsLabels on mouse hover, tab, or other focusData BrushingAllows selecting a subset of data in the graphic to see how it fits or relates to data in other contexts

Common PatternsPower ToolsOverview Plus DetailDatatipsDynamic QueriesData BrushingLocal ZoomingTables and ListsRow StripingSortable TableJump to ItemNew-Item Row

Hierarchical DataTreesCascading ListsTree TableMultidimensional DataMulti-Y GraphSmall MultiplesTreemapOverview Plus DetailPlace an overview graphic new to a zoomed detail viewBest used when you want to user to see both the big picture and details of a portion of interestUser here dont need to see all details at onceZoomed region is typically movable in overview section

Data TipsAs the mouse rolls over points of interest, put the data values or additional information into a tooltip or floating windowBest used when you are showing an overview of the total data, but the graphic represents or has data behind what is shownData tips can be a quick and rewarding form of interactivity

Data Tips

Data Tips

Dynamic QueriesProvide ways to filter the data set immediately and interactivelyBest used when data set is large and contains many variables and/or categoriesSliders and checkboxes often work well as controls to filter

Dynamic Queries

Dynamic Queries

Data BrushingLet the user select data items in one view and show the same data selected in another viewBest used when you have two or more information graphics at a time.Provides the ability to see a select group of points or items mapped against another metric or region

Data Brushing

Data Brushing

Data Brushinghttp://vitagate.itn.liu.se/projects/GAV/demovideos/VDE/VDE.html

Data Brushinghttp://vitagate.itn.liu.se/projects/GAV/demovideos/CoRelation/CoRelation.html

Local ZoomingShow data in a single page. Allow the mouse to select and area which in turn distorts the page and makes those data items large and readableBest used when data set is some type of organizational form plots, maps, networks, tablesCan include rearranging the data to show detail or fisheye zooming which enlarges a section without altering surrounding content

Local Zooming

Distorted LayoutLocal ZoomingFish Eye Zooming

Local Zooming

Row StripingUse two similar shades to alternately color the backgrounds of table rowsBest used when a tables row are difficult to separate visuallyOften occurs when there are two many columns with various types or data or imagesColors should be low saturation and similar in hue

Row Striping

Row Striping

Clearly Better?Sortable TableShow data in a table and let the user sort the table rows according to column valuesBest used when the interface contains many variable types the user may want to explore, group by, reorder, etc.

Jump to ItemWhen user begins to type, jump to that item in the list or tableBest used when the interface uses a scrolling list, table, drop down, combo box or tree to present a long set of items that are usually sorted by alphaKeystrokes within a certain time interval (~200ms) are often honored to drive deeper into the name path

Jump to Item

Cascading ListsExpress a hierarchy by showing selectable lists of items at each levelSelection of an item shows that items children in subsequent listBest used when your data is tree shaped but the hierarchy is deep and/or broad. A treeview would not work as well here due to the vast amount of scrolling that may be induced

Tree TablePut hierarchical data in columns, as you would a table; but use an indented outline and controlling structure as would be seen in a treeBest used when you want to show hierarchical data represented by a tree, but need to show more information than the item name itself.Can be used for sub-sorting in some cases

Tree Table

Tree Table+

Multi-Y GraphStack multiple graphs vertically and let them share the same X-axisY-axis for each graph represents a different metricBest used when you want to show two or more graphs or data sets that share a common trait such as timeline

Multi-Y Graph

Small MultiplesCreate many small pictures of the data using two or three dimensionsTile them on a page according to one or two additional data dimensionsBest used when you need to display a large data set with more than two dimensions or over multiple variables over regular intervals

Small Multiples

Small Multiples

Small Multiples

TreemapExpress multidimensional and/or hierarchical data as rectangles of various sizesThe rectangles are nested to show hierarchy, color and/or labels show additional variablesBest used when data is tree shaped but each item has several attributes such as size and category that permit items to be grouped accordingly. Users also want to see an overview of many data points.

Treemap

Tree Map

Treemap

Treemap

Deductive User Interface

Inductive User InterfaceGood Inductive Interface answersWhat am I supposed to do now?Where do I go from here?

Inductive User InterfaceFocus each screen on a single taskState the taskMake the screens contents suit the taskOffer links to secondary tasksUse consistent screen templatesProvide screens for starting tasksMa