Session 1: E waste management in Asia – Challenges ?· Asia – Challenges and opportunities Environmental…

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  • Session 1: Ewaste management in Asia Challenges and opportunities

    Environmental Perspectives

    Dr. Atsushi TerazonoHead, International Material Cycles Research Section

    Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Japan

    Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) sub- regional training workshop on building capacity to deal with the illegal shipments of e-waste and near-end-of-life electronics 10-13 July 2012, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    1

    http://intra.nies.go.jp/shosai/kikaku/images/logo-download.htm

  • E-waste research at NIES from the viewpoint of international Material Cycle

    International Flow

    Secondhand CRT TV export in 2009

    Secondhand EEE

    generation

    Scrap metal export

    Environmental Impact of e-waste recycling in developing countries

    Domestic Material Flow

    NIES Workshop on E-waste

    8th WS on Jan, 2012)

    Mixed metal scrap

    E-waste recycling (and reuse of secondhand EEE) practices and systems in

    Asian countries

    Japans export control on Secondhand CRT TVs is implemented in 2009.Destination is changed to Vietnam and Macau in 2009 to exploit weak import control.

    Home appliances are contained in scrap mixed metal. Proper export control is recommended. Fire accident would generate PCDD/DFs.

    Reuse condition of exported CRT TVs from Japan was examined.Formal and informal recycling were characterized.

    Analyze env samples from recycling sites in India, Vietnam, Philippines and Indonesia. High-level heavy metals and PCDD/DFs have been confirmed.

    2

  • NIES Workshop on E-waste

    Jan 24, 2012,Metro-Manila,PhilippinesObjectives:Dissemination ofour investigationresults, Discussionabout futureresearchParticipants:Int. org., Centralgov., LGUs, NGOs,Academia, etc.

    Common topics- Material Flow Analysis- Toxicity and resource potential- Management system

    Increasing generation and trade of E-waste inAsiaEnvironmental pollution by inappropriaterecyclingInsufficient environmental regulation, collectionsystem, treatment facility

    1st (Dec. 2004, Tsukuba)2nd (Nov. 2005, Tokyo)3rd (Nov. 2006, Tsukuba)4th (Nov. 2007, Tsukuba)5th (Nov. 2008, Kyoto)6th (Dec. 2009, Sapporo)7th (Oct, 2010), Tsukuba)

    BackgroundBackgroundBackground Past workshopPastPast workshopworkshop

    8th Workshop (Workshop for

    Knowledge Sharing on E- waste in the Philippines)

    8th8th WorkshopWorkshop (Workshop(Workshop forfor

    KnowledgeKnowledge SharingSharing onon EE-- wastewaste inin thethe Philippines)Philippines)

    Characteristics of workshops - Focused on Asia- Long history while E-waste

    concern raised in the world- Speakers mainly from

    academia (and government) but few from business sectors- Contribution to networking

    among individual researchers in Asia and other 3

    Main findings and issues - Various invisible and

    transboundary flows shown- Significant environmental

    effect introduced- Various evaluation of resource

    potential discussed- Management systems

    compared while some countries newly introduced or revised- How to improve the reality

    including informal sectors

  • Content

    Literature reviewSurveys on recycling processSurveys on environmental and health impacts in the Philippines

    4

  • Guiyu ()

    Shantou City

    Shantou, Guandong

    Taizhou, Zhejiang

    Famous house-scale E-waste recycling sites in China

    Feb, 2006, visited by Terazono

  • 6

    Air Water & Sediment Soil Human

    Heavy metals

    Cr (TSP) 190 times higher than Tokyo (Deng et al. 2006, Fang et al. 2005)

    Pb in Lianjiang river 2,400 times higher than WHO GL (BAN,2001)Cr,Sn,Ba, 1,338, 152, 10 times higher than USEPA criteria (BAN,2001)Pb sources for two rivers from isotope analysis (Wong, et al. 2007)

    Cu,Cd,Ni pollution over China Env. Standard (Leung,et al., 2006)Pb,Cu,Zn of dust at recycling sites exceeded Dutch criteria (Leung, et al. 2008)

    Pb in blood level of children 15.3ug/dL,Cr, Pb, Cd of umbilical cord blood higher than surroundings (Li, et al. 2008)

    PBDE PBDE 500-1000 times higher than other studies (Deng, et al. 2007)

    PBDE in sediment 10-100 times higher than other studies (Luo, et al., 2007)PBDE In fish 10-100times higher than other studies (Luo, et al., 2007)

    - BDE209 in serum of workers 50- 200 times higher than other studies (Thomas, et al., 2006, Bi, et al., 2007)

    PAH PAH (TSP) 10 times higher than Hong KongBaP 20 times higher than Guangzhou (Panther, et al. 1999, Deng, et al. 2006)

    High PAH in sediment of Shantou harbor (Maskaoui, et al. 2008)

    High PAH of soil after open burning (Yu, et al., 2006)

    -

    PCDD/DFs PCDD/DFs highest in the world (Li, et al. 2007)

    PCDD/DFs in the sediment is 7-2,514 times higher than Suzhou. (Luxemburg, et al. 2002)

    PCDD/DFs of open-burnt plastic ash is 14 times higher than env. standard for soil in Japan (Luxemburg, et al. 2002)

    -

    Environmental effects by E-waste recycling in Guiyu, China, reviewed by Prof. X. Huo (Shantou Univ., 2010 at NIES WS) and Sepulveda et al. (2010).

  • 7Aug, 2009, suburbs of Hanoi

  • Simplified process comparison

    8

    Product Reuse/ Refurbish

    Residues disposalCollection

    Parts Reuse

    Dismantling Material Recovery

    Smelting/ Other M Recovery

    Residues disposalCollection

    Parts Reuse

    Dismantling Material Recovery

    Formal sectors

    Informal sectors

    Manual and

    machines

    Manual

    Many product reuse

    Often open dumpingProduct Reuse/

    RefurbishMany parts reuse

    Various sorts collected/ quality may not

    controlled

    Smelting/ Other M Recovery

    Pollution control

    Quality often controlled

    Disincentiv e for

    collection

  • CRT Recycling in Vietnam

    CRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling

    Cabinet

    PCB ExportScrapping

    Cables

    ICs

    Board Export Cu recovery

    Extraction

    Reuse/ Recycle

    CrushingGlass

    Export

    Metal

    Separation

    Local

    Scrapping

    Local

    Burning Cu

    Cu

    Dumping

    Proper export?

    9PCB: Printed Circuit Board

    Local

    Local

    Informal recycle

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • CRT Recycling in the Philippines

    CRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling

    Cabinet

    PCB Disassembly

    Cables

    PartsBoard Export Cu recovery

    Reuse/ Recycle

    Glass

    Metal

    Material recycle

    Scrapping

    Iron making

    Burning Cu

    Cu

    MSW collectionInformal recycleor dump

    MSW collection or dump

    Export to KoreaCRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling Cabinet

    PCB

    Cables

    Glass

    Metal Iron making

    Phosphor

    Material recycle

    Material recycle

    HW disposal site

    Export to Malaysia etc.

    Formal recycle

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics Sanitary landfill

    NOT under Basel

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics10

    *PCB: Print Circuit BoardContribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • CRT Recycling in Indonesia

    CRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling

    Cabinet

    PCB Scrapping

    Cables

    PartsBoard Export?

    Glass

    Metal

    Material recycle

    ScrappingIron making

    Burning Cu

    Cu

    or Big smelter (?)Informal recycle Construction material

    MSW collection or dump

    Glass factoryCRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling Cabinet

    PCB

    Cables

    Glass

    Metal Iron making

    Material recycle

    Material recycle

    Cement factory

    Formal recycle

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics Sanitary landfill (?)

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics

    Dismantling

    11

    Reuse/ Recycle

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • CRT Recycling in China

    CRT manufacturer

    CRT

    CRT-TV Dismantling Cabinet

    PWB

    CablesMetal Iron making

    Material recycle

    Material recycle

    Formal recycle

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics Incineration(?)

    DisassemblyParts

    BoardMetal

    ??

    P/F separation

    GlassPhosphor IncinerationDisassembly

    Mechanical separation Non metal

    Construction material

    12Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • Informal processes (Summary from our investigation)

    Vietnam Indonesia Philippines ChinaManual dismantling

    CRT Panel/Funnel Separation

    -- -- -- ??

    De-soldering PCBs (parts separation)

    Leaching of gold from PCBs

    Nitric acid

    Nitric acid,Hydrogen peroxide

    Cyanide

    Aqua regia

    Leaching of silver from PCBs

    Nitric acid

    Nitric acid

    Aqua regia

    ??

    Open burning Open dumping ?? Export of PCBs ?? ??

    13

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • Vietnam Indonesia Philippines ChinaCollection from industry

    Collection from household -- -- -- Manual dismantling

    CRT: (Semi-) automatic crushing and separation

    -- --

    CRT: P/F separation -- -- --

    CRT: glass cullet cleaning -- -- -- Pyrometallurgical processing -- --

    Hydrometallurgical processing

    -- Under consideration

    Export of PCBs -- -- Improper

    export exist

    Export of CRTs -- -- --Disposal in general landfills -- ??

    Disposal in incinerators -- -- --

    Formal processes (Summary from our investigation)

    14

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • Cu extraction from cables

    15Vietnam (Informal) Indonesia (Formal)

    MaskOpen burning

    Mechanical separation

  • IC chip extraction from print circuit board

    16China (Informal) Indonesia (Formal)

    Mas

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