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  • Session 1: Ewaste management in Asia Challenges and opportunities

    Environmental Perspectives

    Dr. Atsushi TerazonoHead, International Material Cycles Research Section

    Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Japan

    Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) sub- regional training workshop on building capacity to deal with the illegal shipments of e-waste and near-end-of-life electronics 10-13 July 2012, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    1

    http://intra.nies.go.jp/shosai/kikaku/images/logo-download.htm

  • E-waste research at NIES from the viewpoint of international Material Cycle

    International Flow

    Secondhand CRT TV export in 2009

    Secondhand EEE

    generation

    Scrap metal export

    Environmental Impact of e-waste recycling in developing countries

    Domestic Material Flow

    NIES Workshop on E-waste

    8th WS on Jan, 2012)

    Mixed metal scrap

    E-waste recycling (and reuse of secondhand EEE) practices and systems in

    Asian countries

    Japans export control on Secondhand CRT TVs is implemented in 2009.Destination is changed to Vietnam and Macau in 2009 to exploit weak import control.

    Home appliances are contained in scrap mixed metal. Proper export control is recommended. Fire accident would generate PCDD/DFs.

    Reuse condition of exported CRT TVs from Japan was examined.Formal and informal recycling were characterized.

    Analyze env samples from recycling sites in India, Vietnam, Philippines and Indonesia. High-level heavy metals and PCDD/DFs have been confirmed.

    2

  • NIES Workshop on E-waste

    Jan 24, 2012,Metro-Manila,PhilippinesObjectives:Dissemination ofour investigationresults, Discussionabout futureresearchParticipants:Int. org., Centralgov., LGUs, NGOs,Academia, etc.

    Common topics- Material Flow Analysis- Toxicity and resource potential- Management system

    Increasing generation and trade of E-waste inAsiaEnvironmental pollution by inappropriaterecyclingInsufficient environmental regulation, collectionsystem, treatment facility

    1st (Dec. 2004, Tsukuba)2nd (Nov. 2005, Tokyo)3rd (Nov. 2006, Tsukuba)4th (Nov. 2007, Tsukuba)5th (Nov. 2008, Kyoto)6th (Dec. 2009, Sapporo)7th (Oct, 2010), Tsukuba)

    BackgroundBackgroundBackground Past workshopPastPast workshopworkshop

    8th Workshop (Workshop for

    Knowledge Sharing on E- waste in the Philippines)

    8th8th WorkshopWorkshop (Workshop(Workshop forfor

    KnowledgeKnowledge SharingSharing onon EE-- wastewaste inin thethe Philippines)Philippines)

    Characteristics of workshops - Focused on Asia- Long history while E-waste

    concern raised in the world- Speakers mainly from

    academia (and government) but few from business sectors- Contribution to networking

    among individual researchers in Asia and other 3

    Main findings and issues - Various invisible and

    transboundary flows shown- Significant environmental

    effect introduced- Various evaluation of resource

    potential discussed- Management systems

    compared while some countries newly introduced or revised- How to improve the reality

    including informal sectors

  • Content

    Literature reviewSurveys on recycling processSurveys on environmental and health impacts in the Philippines

    4

  • Guiyu ()

    Shantou City

    Shantou, Guandong

    Taizhou, Zhejiang

    Famous house-scale E-waste recycling sites in China

    Feb, 2006, visited by Terazono

  • 6

    Air Water & Sediment Soil Human

    Heavy metals

    Cr (TSP) 190 times higher than Tokyo (Deng et al. 2006, Fang et al. 2005)

    Pb in Lianjiang river 2,400 times higher than WHO GL (BAN,2001)Cr,Sn,Ba, 1,338, 152, 10 times higher than USEPA criteria (BAN,2001)Pb sources for two rivers from isotope analysis (Wong, et al. 2007)

    Cu,Cd,Ni pollution over China Env. Standard (Leung,et al., 2006)Pb,Cu,Zn of dust at recycling sites exceeded Dutch criteria (Leung, et al. 2008)

    Pb in blood level of children 15.3ug/dL,Cr, Pb, Cd of umbilical cord blood higher than surroundings (Li, et al. 2008)

    PBDE PBDE 500-1000 times higher than other studies (Deng, et al. 2007)

    PBDE in sediment 10-100 times higher than other studies (Luo, et al., 2007)PBDE In fish 10-100times higher than other studies (Luo, et al., 2007)

    - BDE209 in serum of workers 50- 200 times higher than other studies (Thomas, et al., 2006, Bi, et al., 2007)

    PAH PAH (TSP) 10 times higher than Hong KongBaP 20 times higher than Guangzhou (Panther, et al. 1999, Deng, et al. 2006)

    High PAH in sediment of Shantou harbor (Maskaoui, et al. 2008)

    High PAH of soil after open burning (Yu, et al., 2006)

    -

    PCDD/DFs PCDD/DFs highest in the world (Li, et al. 2007)

    PCDD/DFs in the sediment is 7-2,514 times higher than Suzhou. (Luxemburg, et al. 2002)

    PCDD/DFs of open-burnt plastic ash is 14 times higher than env. standard for soil in Japan (Luxemburg, et al. 2002)

    -

    Environmental effects by E-waste recycling in Guiyu, China, reviewed by Prof. X. Huo (Shantou Univ., 2010 at NIES WS) and Sepulveda et al. (2010).

  • 7Aug, 2009, suburbs of Hanoi

  • Simplified process comparison

    8

    Product Reuse/ Refurbish

    Residues disposalCollection

    Parts Reuse

    Dismantling Material Recovery

    Smelting/ Other M Recovery

    Residues disposalCollection

    Parts Reuse

    Dismantling Material Recovery

    Formal sectors

    Informal sectors

    Manual and

    machines

    Manual

    Many product reuse

    Often open dumpingProduct Reuse/

    RefurbishMany parts reuse

    Various sorts collected/ quality may not

    controlled

    Smelting/ Other M Recovery

    Pollution control

    Quality often controlled

    Disincentiv e for

    collection

  • CRT Recycling in Vietnam

    CRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling

    Cabinet

    PCB ExportScrapping

    Cables

    ICs

    Board Export Cu recovery

    Extraction

    Reuse/ Recycle

    CrushingGlass

    Export

    Metal

    Separation

    Local

    Scrapping

    Local

    Burning Cu

    Cu

    Dumping

    Proper export?

    9PCB: Printed Circuit Board

    Local

    Local

    Informal recycle

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • CRT Recycling in the Philippines

    CRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling

    Cabinet

    PCB Disassembly

    Cables

    PartsBoard Export Cu recovery

    Reuse/ Recycle

    Glass

    Metal

    Material recycle

    Scrapping

    Iron making

    Burning Cu

    Cu

    MSW collectionInformal recycleor dump

    MSW collection or dump

    Export to KoreaCRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling Cabinet

    PCB

    Cables

    Glass

    Metal Iron making

    Phosphor

    Material recycle

    Material recycle

    HW disposal site

    Export to Malaysia etc.

    Formal recycle

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics Sanitary landfill

    NOT under Basel

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics10

    *PCB: Print Circuit BoardContribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • CRT Recycling in Indonesia

    CRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling

    Cabinet

    PCB Scrapping

    Cables

    PartsBoard Export?

    Glass

    Metal

    Material recycle

    ScrappingIron making

    Burning Cu

    Cu

    or Big smelter (?)Informal recycle Construction material

    MSW collection or dump

    Glass factoryCRT

    CRT-TV, monitor Dismantling Cabinet

    PCB

    Cables

    Glass

    Metal Iron making

    Material recycle

    Material recycle

    Cement factory

    Formal recycle

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics Sanitary landfill (?)

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics

    Dismantling

    11

    Reuse/ Recycle

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • CRT Recycling in China

    CRT manufacturer

    CRT

    CRT-TV Dismantling Cabinet

    PWB

    CablesMetal Iron making

    Material recycle

    Material recycle

    Formal recycle

    Labels/Sticker/Plastics Incineration(?)

    DisassemblyParts

    BoardMetal

    ??

    P/F separation

    GlassPhosphor IncinerationDisassembly

    Mechanical separation Non metal

    Construction material

    12Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • Informal processes (Summary from our investigation)

    Vietnam Indonesia Philippines ChinaManual dismantling

    CRT Panel/Funnel Separation

    -- -- -- ??

    De-soldering PCBs (parts separation)

    Leaching of gold from PCBs

    Nitric acid

    Nitric acid,Hydrogen peroxide

    Cyanide

    Aqua regia

    Leaching of silver from PCBs

    Nitric acid

    Nitric acid

    Aqua regia

    ??

    Open burning Open dumping ?? Export of PCBs ?? ??

    13

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • Vietnam Indonesia Philippines ChinaCollection from industry

    Collection from household -- -- -- Manual dismantling

    CRT: (Semi-) automatic crushing and separation

    -- --

    CRT: P/F separation -- -- --

    CRT: glass cullet cleaning -- -- -- Pyrometallurgical processing -- --

    Hydrometallurgical processing

    -- Under consideration

    Export of PCBs -- -- Improper

    export exist

    Export of CRTs -- -- --Disposal in general landfills -- ??

    Disposal in incinerators -- -- --

    Formal processes (Summary from our investigation)

    14

    Contribution by Dr. A. Yoshida

  • Cu extraction from cables

    15Vietnam (Informal) Indonesia (Formal)

    MaskOpen burning

    Mechanical separation

  • IC chip extraction from print circuit board

    16China (Informal) Indonesia (Formal)

    MaskChamber and gas

    treatmentImproper fan

    No mask

  • Sampling campaign in the Philippines with Ehime Univ. in 2010

    February 7 - 14

    August 22 28

    Payatas

    Formal sitesInformal sites

  • 18

    Formal recycling site

    Informal recycling site

  • Gold plated chip (5kg)

    Pour HOT sodium cyanide solution.

    Boil the solution down until it becomes thick.

    Replace it into a pottery vessel and heat it by burner.

    Add borax powder to reduce golds dissolution

    temperature

    Tip the pot, remove non-gold parts. Cool down the

    remaining gold. 18K (5.9g) 13,600JPY

    Add lead bar, then turn up the heat.

    (Dissolution of Gold) 4Au + 8NaCN +O2 + 2H2 O 4NaAu(CN)2 + 4NaOH

    Sell as copper scrap

    (Reduction) 2NaAu(CN)2 + Pb NaPb(CN)4 + 2Au

    72%

    BoraxNa2 B4 O5 (OH)4 8H2 O

    (2010.02) 3,220JPY/g X5.9g= 18,998

    19

    by Dr. A. YoshidaInvestigated Informal Gold Recovery in

    Philippines

  • Burn by burner

    Replace it into a pottery vessel and heat it by burner.

    Add borax and Tin

    Gold (

  • Hazardous and high-priced(?) soil at the informal gold recovery site

    Soil (n = 4) GM concentration (mg/kg)

    Interior dust (n = 1) Concentration (mg/kg)

    Ag 110Au 54Cd 4.7

    Cu 7800Ni 700Pb 5400

    Sn 1300Sb 99Zn 2280

    Ag 190Au 150Cd 28

    Cu 11000Ni 3900Pb 160000

    Sn 2200Sb 1100Zn 3000

    Ref. Au in gold ore 4-5 mg/kg

    Dr. H. Takigami

  • Cd As In Ag Co Mn Ni Zn Pb Cu Fe

    100

    102

    104

    106

    Enr

    ichm

    ent f

    acto

    r Soil Soil DustDust

    Formal Informal

    a

    aa

    #

    a

    a

    a

    a

    #

    a

    a

    bb

    aa a a

    a

    bbc

    c

    a

    abb

    c

    a

    bc

    abc

    c

    a

    b

    c c

    aa a a

    nana Base

    element

    Cd As In Ag Co Mn Ni Zn Pb Cu Fe

    100

    102

    104

    106

    Con

    cent

    ratio

    n (m

    g/kg

    )

    Soil Soil DustDust

    Formal Informal

    a a aa

    abab

    b

    ##

    b

    a

    b

    a

    a

    aa

    a

    a

    aa

    a a

    b

    cc c

    b

    aa

    a

    abb

    c

    ab

    c c

    b

    aaab

  • a

    b

    Haz

    ard

    inde

    x (H

    I)

    Soil Dust Soil Dust

    Formal site Informal site0

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    ChildrenAdults

    Pb

    Cu

    As

    Mn

    Pb

    Cu Pb

    PbCu

    Cu

    61%

    79%9%

    25%75%

    17%36%

    21%

    21%

    14%

    Minimal

    Low

    Moderate

    High

    0.1

    ****

    p = 0.059**

    p = 0.053

    HQ

    % in

    HI

    NS

    4.6

    3761

    490

    0.10

    0.18

    0.80

    1.4

    0.41

    3.7 3.3

    30

    1.4

    4.0

    11

    32

    T. Fujimori, et al. (2012) J. of Hazardous Materials. 221-222, 139-146

  • Comparison of contamination at e-waste sites in AsiaComparison of contamination at e-waste sites in Asia

    Ag

    Cd

    Pb

    In

    Sn

    Sb

    Bi

    1; This study2; Wong et al, 20093; Ha et al., 2009

    5 10 15 20

    Concentration ratio of metals in human hairfrom e-waste site to the reference site

    0

    91

    Philippines1InformalJSFormal AFormal B

    China2Informal 1Informal 2

    India3FormalInformal

    Philippines1InformalJSFormal AFormal B

    China2Informal 1Informal 2

    India3FormalInformal

    1

    Dr. H. Takigami

  • 5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    2006 2007 2008 20092005 20100

    30

    Year

    Con

    cent

    ratio

    n in

    blo

    od (

    g/l)

    2011

    FAThis study

    FAThis study

    y = -3.05x + 6140R2 = 0.308p < 0.001

    Temporal trend of blood Pb level at FATemporal trend of blood Pb level at FA

    T. Agusa, et al. (2012) 8th NIES E-waste

  • 0 300000 600000 0 5000 10000 0 0.05 0.10

    Adult

    Fe Zn

    Child

    0 3000 6000

    Rb

    0 150 300

    Se

    0 3 6

    Cs

    Ga

    Adult

    Child

    Relationship between age and TE levels in blood; High concentration in adults at IFJ

    Relationship between age and TE levels in blood; High concentration in adults at IFJ

    ; p < 0.05

    Concentration in blood (g/l)T. Agusa, et al. (2012) 8th NIES E-waste

  • 0 750 1500 0 1.5 3.0 0 0.2 0.4

    Adult

    Cu Sb

    Child

    Co

    Relationship between age and TE levels in blood; High concentration in children at IFJ

    Relationship between age and TE levels in blood; High concentration in children at IFJ

    Concentration in blood (g/l)

    High exposure?

    Low metabolism?

    ; p < 0.05T. Agusa, et al. (2012) 8th NIES E-waste

  • 28

    Fire during loading of mixed metal scrap to vessel(Osaka, Sep 11, 2009, photo by Kyodo News)

    Piled up and burnt mixed metal scrap(Osaka, Sep 14, 2009, photo by

    T )

    PCDD/DFs from uncontrolled EPCDD/DFs from uncontrolled E--waste handlingwaste handlingPCDD/DFs in soils at E-waste recycling sites in India (Ramu, et al., 2008), together with burnt scrap

    E-waste sites

    FacilityBack yard Ref. sites Dump sites*

    Environmental standard criteria (Japan)

    Monitoring standard criteria (Japan)

    US ATSDA

    790-18,000 pg-TEQs/g (PCDD/Fs +co-PCBs) were analyzed from burnt scrap of mixed metal (n=10).It is comparable or exceeds the level of E-waste backyard sites in India.

    TEQ

    Open burning is typical uncontrolled E-waste handling. Fire accident case is compared with E-waste sites in India in this slide.

    http://sankei.jp.msn.com/photos/affairs/disaster/090911/dst0909111343004-p1.htm

  • Abstract 1Valuable and hazardous substances of E-waste

    It is recommended that valuable substances (precious and rare metals, etc.) are recovered effectively and hazardous substances are controlled without emission.

    Classification and characterization of E-waste recyclingWe surveyed the processes of dismantling and recycling of E-waste in detail by site investigations in China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam in 2009-2011 (Philippines in 2010). CRT TV/Monitors, Printed circuit boards and Wires/Cables were targeted.

    Environmental effectHigh-level environmental emission of heavy metal and persistent organic pollutants are reported in some developing countries.Open burning and manual metal recovery processes could be worst sources of direct exposure of heavy metals, which was suggested by high concentration in soil or dust taken on the sites.

    29

  • Indoor dust, surrounding soil, air, and hair, blood and urine of workersinvestigated at formal and informal recyclers in the Philippines (Feb.and Aug. 2010). Chemical analysis is still being carried out.High Hazard Indices of dust were found both from formal and informal sites, especially for children.Informal recycling sitesHigh Pb and Cu of soil after open burning of cablesHigh Pb, Zn and Cu of soil around junkshopsHigh Pb (160,000ppm), Au (150ppm), Ag (190ppm) of indoor dust and Au (54ppm), Ag(110ppm) of soil at informal Au recycling sites. High Ag (58ppm), Cu (1,800ppm) of soilat Ag recycling sites.

    Formal recycling sitesPartly high Pb in blood of workersOver 1,000 ppm of Cu, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni of indoor dustHigh In (260ppm) of workers hair. High Cu (89,601ppm) and Se (39ppm) also detected,that may be caused by crushed and stored solar cell. Cf. Cu(In)Se2, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 30

    Abstract 2 (from NIES and Ehime Univ. study)

  • Env. effects of informal recycling by items

    31

    CRT TV/monitors:CRT TV/monitors:-Both reusable CRT and unusable CRT are informally exported from

    Vietnam to China.

    -Unleaded CRT and its glass or disposed (dumped) as regular waste. Some CRT glass are used as construction or glass materials.

    -Fluorescent powders are not properly treated or controlled.

    Printed circuit boards:Printed circuit boards:-Precious metals (gold, silver) are recovered from ICs, but some scattered

    to the surrounding.

    -Copper, glass fibers are not efficiently recovered as materials.

    -Discharge of untreated waste solutions and residues.

    -Spreading NO2 , vaporized metals (lead, tin) to the environment.

    Wires/cables: Wires/cables: -Open burning is still very common. High concentration of Cu, or bromide

    in the soil, emissions of PCDD/PCDFs are concerned.

  • Future challenges

    What research and information are needed regarding recycling process and environmental effect?

    Further chemical analysis including POPs?Exposure analysis? Site assessment? Social and economic survey?

    How should we utilize the knowledge for improvement ofworkers health and safety, and environment?

    Delivering the knowledge directly to informal recyclers? Or any framework should be constructed? (Who should be involved?)Just restriction of informal recycling? Or establishment of some ESM (Environmentally Sound Management) for informal sectors?

    Development of collection and recycling system (incl.funding mechanism), and effective enforcement of environmental regulations 32

    Fume

    Burning IC chips for Gold recovery

    (Bandung, Indonesia, Jan 2011)

  • Thank you for your kind attention! Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by Dr.A.Yoshida, Dr.H.Takigami, Dr.T.Fujimori (Kyoto Univ.), Dr.M.Oguchi, Dr.T.Agusa (Ehime Univ.), Dr.J.F.C.Ballesteros (Univ. Philippines Diliman) and other colleagues.

    33Dr. Atsushi Terazono, terazono@nies.go.jp

    Caloocan, Metro-Manila, Aug. 2010

    Session 1: Ewaste management in Asia Challenges and opportunitiesEnvironmental PerspectivesSlide Number 2Slide Number 3ContentSlide Number 5Slide Number 6Slide Number 7Simplified process comparisonCRT Recycling in VietnamCRT Recycling in the PhilippinesCRT Recycling in IndonesiaCRT Recycling in ChinaInformal processes (Summary from our investigation)Slide Number 14Cu extraction from cablesIC chip extraction from print circuit boardSampling campaign in the Philippines with Ehime Univ. in 2010Slide Number 18Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23Comparison of contamination at e-waste sites in AsiaTemporal trend of blood Pb level at FARelationship between age and TE levels in blood;High concentration in adults at IFJRelationship between age and TE levels in blood;High concentration in children at IFJSlide Number 28Abstract 1Abstract 2(from NIES and Ehime Univ. study)Env. effects of informal recycling by itemsFuture challengesThank you for your kind attention!Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by Dr.A.Yoshida, Dr.H.Takigami, Dr.T.Fujimori (Kyoto Univ.), Dr.M.Oguchi, Dr.T.Agusa (Ehime Univ.), Dr.J.F.C.Ballesteros (Univ. Philippines Diliman) and other colleagues.