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    Second International Israeli Palestinian Conference Water for Life in the Middle East

    10th - 14th October 2004 Porto Bello Hotel, Antalya, Turkey

    IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING AND NON-CONVENTIONAL WATER RESOURCES: POTENTIAL OF SOLAR THERMAL DESALINISATION TO

    DEFUSE WATER AS A CONFLICT ISSUE - A CONCEPTUAL CONTRIBUTION TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND LONG-TERM CONFLICT AVOIDANCE

    Hans Gnter Brauch

    AFES-PRESS, Alte Bergsteige 47, 74821 Mosbach Germany, brauch@afes-press.de Privatdozent at Otto-Suhr-Institute of Political Science, Free University of Berlin;

    Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS), Mosbach; Member, EU-Network of Excellence on Security (GMOSS);

    Member of the College of Associated Scientists and Advisers (CASA) of the UNU Institute on Environment and Human Security Institute (UNU-EHS), Bonn

    Abstract, keywords, disclaimer 2 INTRODUCTION: RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES 3 FOUR CONCEPTUAL PILLARS OF SIXTY YEARS OF PEACE IN EUROPE 3

    Pillar 1: David Mitranys functionalist concept of a working peace system 3 Pillar 2: Paul Hoffman and George Marshalls concept of conditionalised aid 4 Pillar 3: Jean Monnets concept of functional institution-building 4 Pillar 4: Mikhail Gorbachevs new thinking to break out of the deterrence syndrome 4

    SECURITY PERCEPTIONS MATTER 5 IMPACTS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE MIDDLE EAST 7

    The changing demand side: population growth, urbanisation, agriculture and food 9 The changing supply side: climate change, hydrological changes and soil erosion 11 Complex interactions between climate change and hydrological cycle (water scarcity) 11 Complex interactions between climate change, hydrological cycle and soil erosion 15

    STRATEGY FOR RECOGNISING LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES 15 RELEVANCE OF THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE FOR THE NEAR EAST? 16

    Contributing to the Small Hope: Towards Functional Cooperation in Addressing Jointly the Regional Impacts of Global Environmental Change in the Near and Middle East

    18

    Small Steps towards Environmental Partnership Building Measures 19 Towards Functional Cooperation in Addressing Environmental Security Challenges 19

    Unconventional solutions to cope with water scarcity 19

    Regional technical and economic potentials for solar thermal and windpower energy 20 Solar thermal power technologies 21 Application of solar thermal power technologies in Israel and in Egypt 22 Combined solar power and desalination plants 23 Financial Instruments: GEF and Clean Development Mechanism 23 Feasibility studies on 3 initial steps towards solar thermal energy and desalination 24 Desalination plants in the Gulf of Aqaba 25 Ten steps for functional cooperation in addressing common environmental challenges 26

    RECOGNISING COMMON CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL FOR FUNCTIONAL CO-OPERATION IN RESPONDING TO NEW COMMON THREATS

    27

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 28 PROPOSAL FOR A NETWORK TO DEVELOP FEASIBLE FUNCTIONAL CONCEPTS 29

    Bibliography 30

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    IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING AND NON-CONVENTIONAL WATER RESOURCES: POTENTIAL OF SOLAR THERMAL DESALINISATION TO

    DEFUSE WATER AS A CONFLICT ISSUE - A CONCEPTUAL CONTRIBUTION TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND LONG-TERM CONFLICT AVOIDANCE

    Hans Gnter Brauch1

    AFES-PRESS, Alte Bergsteige 47, 74821 Mosbach Germany, brauch@afes-press.de

    PD at Otto-Suhr-Institute of Political Science, Free University of Berlin; Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS), Mosbach;

    Member, EU-Network of Excellence on Security (GMOSS); Member of the College of Associated Scientists and Advisers (CASA) of the

    UNU Institute on Environment and Human Security Institute (UNU-EHS), Bonn

    Abstract2 The article argues that the conceptual ideas of David Mitrany, George Marshall, Jean Monnet, as well as the new thinking of Mikhail Gorbachev were instrumental for 60 years of peace in Europe, for European integration, overcoming the Cold War and contributing to the reunifica-tion of Europe. The article contrasts different security perceptions of narrow national security threats with a widened security concept that includes economic, societal and environmental dimensions and other levels of analysis and referents, with a special focus on human security. Thereafter, the regional impact of global environmental change and potential fatal outcomes are discussed for the Middle East until 2050 and 2100. These environmental challenges are not yet perceived as common threats. A special focus is on the water demand due to popula-tion growth, urbanisation and food needs, as well as the changing supply due to the impact of climate change on both precipitation, soil erosion, drought and desertification in the region. Then, these common environmental challenges are discussed that will affect Israelis and Pale-stinians during the 21st century and that may influence the dominant security discourse focus-ing on military threats. The author suggests a strategy for problem recognition and agenda set-ting of common long-term environmental challenges in the region. In responding to water de-gradation and scarcity he proposes a functional cooperation and developing of a joint infra-structure on water, soil and food between Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Palestine in the Gulf of Aqaba, in the Jordan valley and in the Sinai and Negev. He suggests first to jointly analyse these environmental challenges and second to develop common technical solutions and a trans-border infrastructure with support of international donors in two or more countries. The case of solar thermal desalination is used to develop the idea of a gradual functional co-operation that may lead to common institutions to address common challenges and potential causes of conflict. The cooperation among water authorities and communities during periods of crises could become a nucleus for testing conceptual ideas by focusing on indispensable commodities for survival (water, soil, food, energy). These considerations may conceptually contribute to conflict resolution and long-term environmental conflict avoidance, tasks the in-ternational donor community should address to deal pro-actively with common challenges.

    Keywords : climate change, conflict resolution and avoidance, functional cooperation, secu-rity concepts, solar thermal desalination, non-conventional water resources

    1 The views expressed in this paper do not represent any policy perspective of the GMOSS Network, of AFES-

    PRESS or of UNU-EHS. They reflect solely the conceptual views and personal assessment of the author. 2 The author appreciates comments from Mohamad Dajani (Al Quds Univ., Jerusalem); Robin Twite (IPCRI,

    Jerusalem), Annabelle Houdret and Stefan Hintermeier (Free University of Berlin).

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    INTRODUCTION: RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

    After centuries of conflicts in Europe, two world wars and the holocaust, since 1945 Europe has experienced a period of nearly 60 years of peace among EU members. The article ad-dresses the following questions. 1. Which role did the common military threat, functional cooperation, conditionalised aid,

    the community process and the new thinking play? What have been major conceptual ideas, and the political circumstances that made a major change in Europe possible?

    2. Can we draw conceptual lessons from this experience of fundamental change in state and human behaviour that may be relevant for the conflict in the Middle East?

    3. Which role can functional water cooperation play in addressing the impacts of global en-vironmental change in the Middle East in the 21st century in avoiding violent conflicts over water and contributing to a spill-over for cooperation among conflict parties?

    The article is based on the following three basic assumptions: 1. If reality and our knowledge of reality are socially constructed then our perceptions and

    the factors that determine or influence perception matter: our intellectual traditions, world-views, mindsets, national and individual traumas and experiences.

    2. Security concepts and especially subjective security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks are influenced by those factors that contribute to the perceived social reality.

    3. Philosophical, religious, political and conceptual ideas matter and they have been instru-mental throughout human history to initiate a major change in science, society, politics and in the relations among states. Ideas often inspired action both to the better or worse.

    FOUR CONCEPTUAL PILLARS OF SIXTY YEARS OF PEACE IN EUROPE After centuries of permanent and repeated conflicts and wars in Europe four conceptual think-ers and key operational ideas have contributed to a basic change that have resulted in nearly 60 years of peace in Europe and to a reunification of the continent after the cold war. Pillar 1: David Mitranys functionalist concept of a working peace system In the words of David Mitrany (1943), functionalism is concerned with the ways of creating a working peace system. It involves a diagnosis of the problems of disorder in international society and a prescription for ways of shaping a better world (Taylor/Groom 1975: 1). Func-tionalism as a theory of cooperation reflects the developments in the structure of the political, social and economic life and it adapts these to a theory of international integration. Groom (1975: 93ff.) analysed functionalism both as a description of world society and as a prescrip-tion for a working peace system. This functionally oriented transboundary cooperation in international organisations (ILO, FAO, IFRCRCS) and the technical and non-political prob-lem solution by exper