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  • Second Edition

    CounsellingSkillsManagers

    Kavita Singh

    for

    ok UV Title only

  • COUNSELLING SKILLS FOR MANAGERS

  • KAVITA SINGHProfessor

    Faculty of Management StudiesUniversity of Delhi

    Delhi

    Delhi-1100922015

    COUNSELLING SKILLSFOR MANAGERS

    Second Edition

  • COUNSELLING SKILLS FOR MANAGERS, Second EditionKavita Singh

    2015 by PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

    ISBN-978-81-203-5137-0

    The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

    Fifth Printing (Second Edition) . . . . . . August, 2015

    Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, Rimjhim House, 111, PatparganjIndustrial Estate, Delhi-110092 and Printed by Raj Press, New Delhi-110012.

  • Dedicated to the One who always shows methe way ahead and is always with me in

    whatever I do My God

  • vii

    Preface ............................................................................................................. xv

    Preface to the First Edition ........................................................................ xvii

    Acknowledgements ......................................................................................... xix

    1. INTRODUCTION TO COUNSELLING ................................................ 1

    1.1 The Need for Work Place Counselling ...................................... 21.2 Evolution of Counselling over the Years ................................... 4

    1.2.1 Period 1 ........................................................................... 41.2.2 Period 2 ........................................................................... 41.2.3 Period 3 ........................................................................... 61.2.4 Period 4 ........................................................................... 7

    1.3 Defining Counselling .................................................................... 81.4 Counselling, Psychotherapy and Instruction ............................. 10

    1.4.1 Distinction between Counselling and Psychotherapy .... 111.4.2 Difference between Counselling and Instruction ........ 14

    1.5 Summary ..................................................................................... 15

    Review Questions ................................................................................... 15

    2. APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING .................................................. 17

    2.1 Psychoanalytic Approach to Counselling .................................... 18

    2.1.1 The Nature of People ..................................................... 192.1.2 The Counselling Process ................................................ 222.1.3 Contribution to the Generic Model of Counselling ....... 23

    2.2 Behaviouristic Approach to Counselling ..................................... 25

    2.2.1 The Nature of People ...................................................... 272.2.2 The Counselling Process ................................................. 272.2.3 Contribution to the Generic Model of Counselling .......... 29

    Contents

  • 2.3 Humanistic Approach or Person-centred Counselling ................ 30

    2.3.1 The Nature of People ..................................................... 312.3.2 The Counselling Process ................................................ 322.3.3 Essential Conditions for Personality Change ................. 332.3.4 Contribution to the Generic Model of Counselling ....... 34

    2.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 35

    Review Questions ................................................................................... 35

    3. GOALS OF COUNSELLING .................................................................36

    3.1 Five Major Goals of Counselling ................................................ 36

    3.1.1 Commonality of Goals ................................................... 38

    3.2 Role of a Counsellor .................................................................... 393.3 The Counsellor as a Person ......................................................... 403.4 Personality and Background of the Counsellor ........................... 40

    3.4.1 Negative Motivators for Becoming a Counsellor .......... 40

    3.5 Positive Motivators for Becoming a Counsellor ......................... 413.6 Personal Characteristics of Counsellors ...................................... 43

    3.6.1 A Composite Model of Human Effectiveness ............... 443.6.2 Personal Characteristics of Effective Counsellors ......... 44

    3.7 Values in Counselling .................................................................. 473.8 The Counsellors Values ............................................................. 50

    3.8.1 Influence of Counsellors Values on Clients Values .... 503.8.2 Importance of Valuing Human Freedom ....................... 52

    3.9 Summary ..................................................................................... 53

    Review Questions ................................................................................... 53

    4. THE PROCESS OF COUNSELLING .................................................. 54

    4.1 5-D Model of the Counselling Process ........................................ 544.2 The Phases of Counselling .......................................................... 55

    4.2.1 Phase 1: Developing the Relationship ........................... 554.2.2 Phase 2: Defining the Problem(s) .................................. 574.2.3 Phase 3: Determining Goal(s) ........................................ 594.2.4 Phase 4: Deciding the Plan of Action ............................ 604.2.5 Phase 5: Doing the Follow-up ....................................... 60

    4.3 Summary ..................................................................................... 62

    Review Questions ................................................................................... 63

    5. COUNSELLING PROCEDURES .......................................................... 64

    5.1 The Counselling Environment .................................................... 645.2 Intake Procedures ........................................................................ 65

    5.2.1 Confidentiality and Counsellor Dependability .............. 665.2.2 Physical Set-up .............................................................. 66

    viii Contents

  • 5.3 The Initial Counselling Interview ............................................... 67

    5.3.1 How to Open the Session ............................................... 675.3.2 Structuring the Session .................................................. 695.3.3 Goals for the First Session ............................................. 705.3.4 Termination of the Initial Interview .............................. 70

    5.4 Referral Procedures ..................................................................... 71

    5.4.1 When to Refer ................................................................ 725.4.2 How to Refer ................................................................. 73

    5.5 Guidelines for Effective Counselling .......................................... 73

    5.5.1 Keeping the Focus on the Other Person ........................ 745.5.2 Silence is Golden ........................................................... 755.5.3 Managing Emotions ....................................................... 75

    5.6 A Word of Advice ....................................................................... 805.7 Advanced Skills in Counselling .................................................. 80

    5.7.1 Advanced Empathy ........................................................ 815.7.2 Theme Identification ..................................................... 825.7.3 Self-disclosure ............................................................... 835.7.4 Perception Check ........................................................... 845.7.5 Interpretation ................................................................. 845.7.6 Clarification ................................................................... 865.7.7 Confrontation ................................................................. 865.7.8 Immediacy ..................................................................... 88

    5.8 Action Strategies ......................................................................... 89

    5.8.1 Behavioural Techniques ................................................. 895.8.2 Decision-making Methodologies ................................... 905.8.3 Problem-solving Strategies ............................................ 915.8.4 Goal-setting .................................................................... 92

    5.9 Termination and Follow-up ........................................................ 92

    5.9.1 Readiness for Termination ............................................. 935.9.2 Client Responses to Termination ................................... 945.9.3 Counsellor Responses to Termination ........................... 945.9.4 Ending in a Positive Way .............................................. 95

    5.10 Summary ..................................................................................... 95

    Review Questions ................................................................................... 96

    6. COUNSELLING SKILLS ........................................................................97

    6.1 What Clients Bring to the Counselling Experi

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