SCULPTURE LATE GOTHIC PAINTING - known as “Proto-Renaissance ... Think of Late Gothic Painting as the “Hellenistic Period ... effects such regimes would have in the town and the country.

Download SCULPTURE LATE GOTHIC PAINTING -   known as “Proto-Renaissance ... Think of Late Gothic Painting as the “Hellenistic Period ... effects such regimes would have in the town and the country.

Post on 27-May-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLATE GOTHIC PAINTING & SCULPTURELATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Artists to KnowCimabue(Florence)Duccio(Siena)Nicola PisanoLorenzettisGiottoSimone MartiniLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingLate GothicWhat you need to know aboutBlack Death wipes out 25% of EuropeAlso known as Proto-RenaissanceGothic ARCHITECTURE = FranceLate Gothic PAINTING = ItalyThink of Late Gothic Painting as the Hellenistic Period of the High Gothic Era Emotional, Detailed, and a more Humanistic ConnectionLate 1200s Early 1300sLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingByzantineVirgin and ChildLate GothicVirgin and ChildRenaissanceVirgin and ChildHow does Late Gothic art create the bridge between Byzantine and Renaissance art?LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingNicola Pisano (circa 1220-c. 1284). Nicola is thought to have been trained in the Italian workshops of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II, who encouraged a Roman revival. Nicola's carved reliefs for the pulpit of the Pisa Baptistery were derived from figures on Roman sarcophagi in the Camposanto of Pisa.These carvings are outstanding for their assimilation of the solid, three-dimensional Roman style as well as for their corresponding emphasis on the individuality and dignity of the human figure. They mark a turning point in Italian sculpture analogous to that represented in painting by the work of Giotto. Nicola PisanoNicola Pisano, Pisa Baptistry Pulpit, 1260. LATE GOTHICLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Nicola Pisano, Siena Baptistry Pulpit, 1260. LATE GOTHICLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingGiotto Di Bondone, Interior of the Arena Chapel , 1305-1306.The Arena Chapel gets it name from the Roman amphitheater that is nearby and was built for a local Paduan merchant named Enrico Scrovegni.The design of the building so perfectly fits the illusion that its is suggested that Giotto may have been the architect as well. The result of such a large canvas on which to paint was a complete pictorial cycle of Christian Redemption, created in 38 framed pictures on 3 levels. The top register contains images of Virgin Mary and her parents, the middle level contains imagery from the life and mission of Christ, and the bottom level depicts Christs Passion, Crucifixion, and Resurrection.The pictorial levels are on a neutral base with imitation marble veneer alternates with the virtues and vices painted in grisaille (monochrome grays, often used for modeling in painting) to resemble sculpture.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Exterior of Arena ChapelLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingIn one of the scenes, Enrico Scrovegni offers a model of the Chapel to the Virgin Mary in one of Giottos frescoes.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingThe ANNUNCIATION Archangel GABRIEL informs Mary that she will bear the baby Jesus. Dove represents the INCARNATIONThe VISITATION Mary visits cousin Elizabeth (whos pregnant w/ St. John the Baptist) Elizabeth 1st to recognize divinity of babyThe ADORATION Three Magi from the East present gifts to honor Jesus as King of the Jews Gold (kingship), Frankincense (divinity) and Myrrh (Death)The RESURRECTION Three days after Christ dies, he walks from his tomb as the guards sleep. The ASCENSION 40 days after his resurrection, Christ ascends into heaven as his apostles (and sometimes the Virgin Mary) watchThe LAMENTATION Mary and other bystanders mourn the body as Jesus Christ lays dead. The DEPOSITION Jesuss dead body is being taken down from the cross. LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting The Illusion of Depth & FormGiotto Di Bondone, Lamentation, ca. 1305Arena ChapelLATE GOTHICChiaroscurothe use of dramatic contrasts of dark and light to produce modelingLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingGiotto Di Bondone, Crucifixion, ca. 1305Arena ChapelLATE GOTHICNo more Cookie-Cutter posesLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingGiotto Di Bondone, Flight into Egypt, ca. 1305Arena ChapelLATE GOTHICLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingGiotto Di Bondone, Homage of a Simple Man,ca. 1295-1300.St. Francis of Assisi, Italy LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Church of St. Francis of Assisi, Assisi, Italy 1228LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Church of St. Francis of Assisi, Assisi, Italy 1228LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingChurch of St. Francis of Assisi Siena CathedralRomaneque style vs. GothicLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Interior of Upper Chapel at AssisiLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingDuccio, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Maesta alterpiece,Siena, Italy, 1308-1311 Tempera on wood panel.Part of a large altarpiece called the Maesta, he carved his name into the base of the Virgins throne. It depicts the Virgin enthroned as the Queen of Heaven amid angels and saints. The compositions formality, symmetry, and faces of the figures all come from Byzantine tradition but they are slightly relaxed - the faces on the figures are individualized and there movements are softened. Part of a new naturalism, full of color, composition and texture manipulation. The influence of China and the Middle East can be seen in the texture and composition of the fabrics that the figures are wearing.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Betrayal of JesusDuccio Di Buoninsegna, detail from the back of the Maesta altarpiecefrom the Siena Cathedral. Siena, Italy. 1309-1311This piece is representation of several episodes of Jesus betrayal, including the Kiss of Judas, the disciples fleeing in terror, and Peter cutting off the ear of the high priests servant. The golden sky remains traditional, however, the figures are not depicted as they were in Byzantine art. Duccio gives the figures depth, emotion on their faces, and adorns them with clothing that drapes around them convincingly. The figures display a variety of emotions, reacting to what is happening around them. LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingDuccio Di Buoninsegna, detail from the backof the Maesta altarpiece. 1309-1311 LATE GOTHICLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Computer Reconstruction of the Maesta (Front)LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Computer Reconstruction of the Maesta (Back)LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingDuccio, Triptych of Madonna and Child, c1280. LATE GOTHICLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingIn November 2004 the painting was purchased by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City (Met) for an undisclosed sum, reported to be in excess of 45 million USD, the most expensive purchase ever by the museum. It was the first work by Duccio acquired by the Met, which bought the painting from members of the Stoclet family in order to close a gap in its permanent collections of painting. Duccio, The Stoclet Madonna, c1300, Tempera on Wood. 8.3 x 11. LATE GOTHICThe Stoclet MadonnaLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingGiotto Di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310. LATE GOTHICGiottos new form of painting displaced the Byzantine style and established painting as a major art form for the next six centuries. He is often credited as the father of Western pictorial art.He restored the naturalistic approach invented by the Romans, that was abandoned in the middle ages, and established a method of pictorial expression based on observation that might be called early scientific.Madonna is depicted in representational art with sculptural solidity and weight. Madonna, enthroned with angles, rests within her Gothic throne with the unshakable stability of an ancient marble goddess. His technique for such an aesthetic is called chiaroscuro. This art was aimed to construct a figure that had substance, dimensionality, and bulk. Works painted in this new style portray figures, like those in sculpture, that project into the light and give the illusion that they could cast shadows. In this painting the throne is deep enough to contain the monumental figure and breaks away from the flat ground to project and enclose her.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Sala dei Nove, 1338-1339, Siena Italy.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingLorenzetti was called upon to paint allegorical depictions of good and bad government and to represent the effects such regimes would have in the town and the country. The result is the first panoramic city/countryscape since antiquity, and the first expansive portrait that we have of an actual city and landscape. Today, the cycle is usually identified as Good and Bad Government. Ambrogio chose the best-illuminated walls for Good Government and its effects, leaving Bad Government in the shadows on a wall that has also suffered considerable damage. Visualizing Good GovernmentAmbrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, 1338-1339, Siena Italy.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effects of Bad Government, 1338-1339.Visualizing Bad GovernmentLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingCenni di Pepi (Cimabue)Crucifix, 1287-88. LATE GOTHICFlorentine painter whose nickname means Ox-HeadWas considered one of the last of the Greek Manner (aka BYZANTINE) style painters, and one of the 1st to begin exploring natural features of the body thru paintingRegarded as one of the best painters of the time, only to be overshadowed by his student GiottoLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Cimabue, The Madonna and Child in Majesty Surrounded by Angels, c1280. LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Cenni di Pepi (Cimabue)Cenni di Pepi (Cimabue)Madonna and Child Enthroned (1280) Tempera and Gold on Wood, Florence. LATE GOTHICFlorentine painter whose nickname means Ox-HeadWas considered one of the last of the Greek Manner (aka BYZANTINE) style painters, and one of the 1st to begin exploring natural features of the body thru paintingRegarded as one of the best painters of the time, only to be overshadowed by his student GiottoLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingCimabueGiottoLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingCIMABUE versus GIOTTOIn Purgatorio 11, while commenting on the fleeting nature of artistic reputation, Dante notes that:"Cimabue once thought that he held the field in painting, and now Giotto has the praise, so much so that the other's fame is obscured." Why did Giotto so quickly surpass his teacher? Art historians have noted that while Cimabue began to break away from the Byzantine style of painting that had dominated Europe since the beginning of the Middle Ages, Giotto's innovations were much more radical and systematic. Giotto's use of perspective and his portrayal of figures as individuals, each with a distinctive personality, resulted in a realism that would have appealed to the fourteenth-century Florentine middle class."LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingUnlike most Byzantine art, both of the two paintings above use perspective (a hallmark of Renaissance art) to represent three-dimensional space. The throne in Cimabue's painting sits on a curved platform. In Giotto's painting, on the other hand, the three dimensional throne above the Madonna's head not only adds depth but also projects the figure toward the viewer. Giotto's Mary is also more firmly anchored to the ground, while Cimabue's Mary seems almost to float in space.CimabueGiottoLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingIn the first painting, Mary, Jesus, and the angels are painted without much attention to individual facial features or expression. Each of the angels on the left has an almost identical counterpart on the right. The four apostles depicted at the bottom of the painting are much more individualized in their features and poses. In Giotto's painting, Mary, Jesus, and the angels are all different from each other. The angels are still symmetrically arranged, but each angel on the left is subtly different in expression from its counterpart on the right. The Holy Mother is holding her Son in a much more realistic position. CimabueGiottoLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingSimone Martini, Annunciation, 1333LATE GOTHIC (International Gothic)Martinis own style did not quite reach the full exuberance of the developed International Style, A style of 14th- and 15th-century painting begun by Simone Martini, who adapted the French Gothic manner to Sienese art (mystical) fused with influences from the North. This style appealed to the aristocracy because of its brilliant color, lavish costume, intricate ornament, and themes involving splendid processions of knights and ladies. Elegant shapes and radiant color: flowing, fluttering line; and weightless figures in a spaceless setting characterize the Annunciation.Creating an International StyleLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingOne of the more well-known of the gothic sculptures is this one inside Notre Dame in Paris. In this sculpture, Mary is shown standing, holding her son, Jesus, against her body. Unlike previous renditions of this couple, both are naturalistic, with recognizable facial features. As usual in most religious sculptural depictions of the Holy mother and child of this time, Jesus does not look like a baby, but rather like a miniature adult. What also looks a bit awkward is the dramatic S-curve, which is reminiscent of the work of PRAXITELES during the Classical Greek period.Virgin and Child, Late 14h Century. LATE GOTHICLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingLATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingRttgen Piet, c.1300-1325 CE.Painted Wood.This oddly distorted little work is known as the Roettgen Pieta. A pieta is common depiction of the Virgin Mary throughout art history as she holds the body of her dead son Jesus in her lap. Created ca.1325 by an unknown German artist, represents the moment of despair when Mary recognizes the depth of her loss. LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingRttgen Piet, c.1300-1325 CE.Painted Wood.The wooden statue of Mary holding dead Jesus is purposely disproportionate and contrasts sharply with other European statuaries of the time. Although the statue is painted wood, the colors used for Mary and Jesus Christ are dull greys and browns. To symbolize Mary's grief and Jesus's low place in society at the time of his death, Mary and Jesus's clothing are not elaborate or ornamented.This draws further attention to the pain and suffering evident in this sculpture. It goes without saying that the time period and location that the Rottgen Piet was carved, just prior to the Renaissance, in territorial Germany, was a harsh area rife with poverty and other problems such as starvation and plague.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingThe Plagues of Egypt,Golden Haggadah, c. 1320 CE Spain.The Golden Haggadah, one of the finest surviving Spanish Hebrew manuscripts, was made near Barcelona in Northern Spain. The Haggadah, which literally means narration, is the service-book used in Jewish households on Passover Eve to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt. These sumptuous illuminations set against gold-tooled backgrounds earned the manuscript its name and were executed in the northern French Gothic style.Here, the plague of frogs is initiated by as indicated in the Bible. Green frogs leap everywhere and nobody is spared, not even Pharaoh. The plague of lice attacks both humans and animals, and Pharaoh and his magicians seem helpless.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingScenes of Liberation,Golden Haggadah, c. 1320 CE Spain.The Golden Haggadah, one of the finest surviving Spanish Hebrew manuscripts, was made near Barcelona in Northern Spain. The Haggadah, which literally means narration, is the service-book used in Jewish households on Passover Eve to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt. These sumptuous illuminations set against gold-tooled backgrounds earned the manuscript its name and were executed in the northern French Gothic style.In this last opening of the sequence of full-page miniatures, the artist concentrates on two themes: the Israelites' liberation and joyful departure from Egypt, and preparations for the Passover Festival.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingPreparation for Passover,Golden Haggadah, c. 1320 CE Spain.The Golden Haggadah, one of the finest surviving Spanish Hebrew manuscripts, was made near Barcelona in Northern Spain. The Haggadah, which literally means narration, is the service-book used in Jewish households on Passover Eve to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt. These sumptuous illuminations set against gold-tooled backgrounds earned the manuscript its name and were executed in the northern French Gothic style.In this last opening of the sequence of full-page miniatures, the artist concentrates on two themes: the Israelites' liberation and joyful departure from Egypt, and preparations for the Passover Festival.(Please note the use of interior shots from the outside that begin to emerge in the late 14th century.)LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingAlhambra Palace and Court of the Lions,Nasrid Dynasty, 1354-1391 CE Spain.The Alhambra, the palace complex of the Nasrid dynasty in Granada, can perhaps be considered as one of the most famous examples of Islamic art. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-11th century by the Moorish emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by the Sultan of Granada.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingDespite long neglect, vandalism, and some ill-judged restoration, Alhambra endures as an atypical example of Muslim art in its final European stages, relatively uninfluenced by the direct Byzantine influences found in the Mosque of Cordoba. The majority of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms opening on to a central court, and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. Column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In every case, the exterior was left plain and austere. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through time and exposure, are the colors mainly used.Alhambra Palace, Court of the Lions,Nasrid Dynasty, 1354-1391 CE Spain.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & PaintingHall of Two Sisters, Alhambra Palace,Nasrid Dynasty, 1354-1391 CE Spain.The Hall of the Two Sisters (Sala de Dos Hermanas) did not receive this name because of a legend or an event that took place in it, as many tend to believe. The hall was so called because of two big twin marble flagstones that are part of the floor. This hall was in the centre of a series of chambers where the sultana and her family lived. LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Alhambra Palace, Floor Plan, 1354-1391 CE Spain.LATE GOTHIC ART & PAINTINGLate Gothic Art & Painting Alhambra Palace, Lindaraja Window, 1354-1391 CE Spain.

Recommended

View more >