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  • Safeguarding Cultural Heritage from

    Natural and Man-Made Disasters

    A comparative analysis of risk management in the EU

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture Directorate D — Culture and Creativity Unit D1 – Cultural Policy

    Contact: Erminia Sciacchitano

    E-mail: EAC-UNITE-D1@ec.europa.eu

    European Commission B-1049 Brussels

  • Safeguarding Cultural

    Heritage from Natural and Man-Made

    Disasters

    A comparative analysis of risk

    management in the EU

    Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture EAC.D1 Cultural Policy

    2018 EN

    EUROPEAN COMMISSION

  • Authors:

    Alessandra Bonazza1, Ingval Maxwell, Miloš Drdácký2, Ellizabeth

    Vintzileou3, Christian Hanus4

    With substantial contribution of:

    Chiara Ciantelli1, Paola De Nuntiis1, Erato Oikonomopoulou3, Vasiliki

    Nikolopoulou3, Stanislav Pospíšil2, Cristina Sabbioni1, Peter Strasser4

    1National Research Council of Italy -

    Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate 2Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Czech Academy

    of Sciences

    3National Technical University of Athens

    4Danube University Krems

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    More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2018 © European Union, 2018

    Reuse is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. The reuse policy of European Commission documents is regulated by Decision 2011/833/EU (OJ L 330, 14.12.2011, p. 39). For any use or reproduction of photos or other material that is not under the EU copyright, permission must be sought directly from the copyright holders.

    ISBN 978-92-79-73945-3 DOI:10.2766/224310 (catalogue) NC-05-17-059-EN-N

    Image(s) Cover © Paola De Nuntiis Ferrara (IT) #, 2015. Chapter 1 © Bekir Dönmez photo-1502230831726-fe5549140034 #. Source: unsplash.com Chapter 2 © Jarren Simmons photo-1444159759392-aeeb3d5851c1 #. Source: unsplash.com Chapter 3 © Chris Knight photo-1509227336453-48ac3bc4383f #. Source: unsplash.com Chapter 4 © Alice90 SENNA IMOLA #. Source: Wiki Loves Monuments 2017 photo.aptservizi.com

    Disclaimer

    The information and views set out in this study are those of the authors and do

    not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Commission. The Commission

    does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this study. Neither the

    Commission nor any person acting on the Commission’s behalf may be held

    responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein.

    http://europa.eu.int/citizensrights/signpost/about/index_en.htm#note1#note1 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SENNA_IMOLA.png

  • v

    Abstract

    Natural and man-made hazards, anthropogenic effects and extreme climate change

    events, are persistently putting the cultural heritage of Europe under pressure, with a

    daily incremental frequency. In addition, such disasters and catastrophes compound the

    conservation challenges and needs of the heritage assets. These events also menace

    the assets’ social, cultural, historic and artistic values, the safety of citizens, and have

    an impact on local economies linked to tourism. Consequently, research on adaptation

    strategies, methodologies and other remedial tools is crucial, in order to safeguard

    Europe's cultural heritage from the continuous pressures it faces and the related decay-

    inducing consequences.

    This Study presents a comprehensive overview of the existing knowledge, at European

    and international level, on safeguarding cultural heritage from the effects of natural

    disasters and threats caused by human action. Furthermore, it maps existing strategies

    and tools for disaster risk management in the 28 Member States, and provides evidence-

    based recommendations with the purpose of supporting European cooperation and

    improving the integration of cultural heritage in national platforms for Disaster Risk

    Reduction.

  • vi

    Résumé

    Les catastrophes naturelles et anthropiques, les effets anthropogéniques et les

    phénomènes climatiques extrêmes exercent une pression systématique sur le

    patrimoine culturel de l’Europe, à des intervalles de moins en moins espacés. De plus,

    ces désastres et ces catastrophes aggravent les problèmes et les besoins relatifs à la

    conservation des ressources du patrimoine. Aussi, ces phénomènes sont-ils une menace

    pour la valeur sociale, culturelle, historique et artistique de ces ressources et pour la

    sécurité des citoyens. De plus, ils affectent les économies locales liées au tourisme. Il

    s’avère donc urgent de mener des recherches sur les stratégies d’adaptation, les

    méthodologies et d’autres outils permettant de protéger ce patrimoine des pressions

    auxquelles il est sans cesse confronté et des conséquences entraînant sa dégradation.

    Cette étude offre un aperçu exhaustif des connaissances actuelles, à l’échelle

    européenne et internationale, sur la protection du patrimoine culturel des effets des

    catastrophes naturelles et des menaces causées par l’action de l’homme. Aussi,

    propose-t-elle une cartographie des stratégies et des outils disponibles, pour gérer les

    risques de catastrophe dans les 28 États membres. Enfin, elle fournit des

    recommandations pour aider à la coopération européenne et améliorer l’intégration du

    patrimoine culturel dans les plateformes nationales de réduction des risques de

    catastrophe.

  • 7

    Table of Contents

    Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... v

    Résumé .......................................................................................................................................... vi

    Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................... 8

    Résumé exécutif ............................................................................................................................. 14

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 21

    1 Lessons learnt and overall recommendations ............................................ 24

    1.1 Objective of the Study and Methodology .................................................................................. 26

    1.2 General Recommendations ..................................................................................................... 27

    1.3 Specific Recommendations ..................................................................................................... 31

    1.3.1 Climate Change .................................................................................................................... 31

    1.3.2 Air Pollution changes ............................................................................................................. 34

    1.3.3 Flood and Landslide............................................................................................................... 37

    1.3.4 Wind Risk ............................................................................................................................ 41

    1.3.5 Earthquake and Volcanic eruption ........................................................................................... 43

    1.3.6 Fire Risk .............................................................................................................................. 46

    1.3.7 Armed Conflicts and Terrorism ............................................................................................... 48

    2 Literature review and existing initiatives ..................................................... 51

    2.1 Climate Change .................................................................................................................... 53

    2.2 Air pollution changes and Environmental degradation ................................................................ 68

    2.3 Flood ................................................................................................................................... 77

    2.4 Landslide ............................................................................................................................. 91

    2.5 Wind Risk ............................................................................................................................ 96

    2.6 Earthquake ........................................................................................................................ 102

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