S(2)Maize in Asia: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

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Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 11, 2011.

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<ul><li> 1. Maize in Asia: Trends,Challenges and OpportunitiesBM Prasanna Director, Global Maize Program CIMMYT, Int. Email: b.m.prasanna@cgiar.org</li></ul> <p> 2. Maize in the Developing World About 73 per cent of 153million ha of maize areaworldwide in 2010 waslocated in the developingworld. Together with rice and wheat,maize provides at least 30%of the food calories to morethan 4.5 billion people in 94developing countries. Preferred staple food to 900million poor people (&lt; 2 USDper day) 3. Maize in AsiaCountries 3 t/ha Area Production Yield Area Production YieldCountry Country(mha)(mmt) (t/ha) (mha)(mmt) (t/ha)India 8.50 21.00 2.47 China31.50 168.005.33Indonesia 3.158.40 2.67 Vietnam 1.205.50 4.58Philippines 2.656.80 2.57 Thailand0.973.90 4.02Pakistan1.053.00 2.86 Laos0.311.55 5.00Nepal 0.851.70 2.00 Cambodia0.180.70 3.89Bhutan0.040.07 1.56 Turkey0.494.00 8.15Afghanistan 0.150.30 2.00 USA32.89 318.529.69Developing 111.70405.933.63World152.51765.475.02Source: USDA (Dec 2010)Eight major maize-producing countries in Asia China, India, Indonesia,Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam together, nowproduce 98% of Asias maize and 26% of global maize. 4. Maize becomes No.1 crop in China since 2007 Chinese maize belt Each dot equals 50,000 ha Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 5. The ever increasing demand During 2003-08, maizeproduction increased annuallyby 6.0% in Asia, as compared to5.0% in Latin America, and2.3% in sub-Saharan Africa.Between now and 2050, thedemand for maize in the Maize consumption in Chinadeveloping world will double,and by 2025 maize will havebecome the crop with the highestproduction in the developingworld (~490-500 mmt)! 6. Drivers for maize demand in AsiaMaize use for feed in the seven major Asian countries (China,India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam)has more than tripled from 29 m t in 1980 to 109 m t in 2000! 7. Impressive progress in India, but not quite enough!Source: Dr Sain Dass 8. Poultry production in India 20022009(in millions)Broiler12502000Layer 155290Broiler breeder 9.25 15.9Layer breeder1.63.2 Egg productionBroiler production 2600 2350 2400 2150 2200 200119502002 1995 2000 2003 2000 1750 18002005 200415502005 160020061350 1400 1200 11508.3 % growth2.65 m t 8.5 % growth 2.4 m t 9. Volatility of Maize PricesMaize imports for developing countryeconomies will increase 24% by 2050 equalling USD 30 billion. 10. Food security is at risk due to climate change....In order to meetglobal demands,we will need60-70% more foodby 2050. 11. Drought =&gt; large annual yield fluctuations inboth sub-Saharan Africa and Asia6.005.00Grain yield (t ha )4.00-13.002.001.00MaizeRiceWheat0.001960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 YearAlleviating the effects of drought alone could increase average maizeyields by 35% across Asia-7 (excluding China), and by 28% in SouthwestChina (Gerpacio and Pingali, 2007). 12. Heat stress isbecoming anincreasing reality,coupled withdrought stress, inmany maizegrowing regions inAsia 13. Excess water a recurring theme in some regions Episodes of intense rainfall, leading to flooding 20 million ha affected in South and Southeast AsiaWaterlogging-prone areas in South &amp; SE Asia 14. An array of biotic stresses in the tropics and subtropics TLBGLSSpecial Issue: Climate Change and Plant Diseases Ear rots Weevils 15. Stress seldom comes alone.Drought &amp;Heat StressStressed plants Reduced yields Ear rots low qualityMycotoxins 16. Mycotoxin contamination A serious problem in manymaize-growing countries inAsia, Africa and LatinAmerica, affecting long-termhealth of humans andanimals, trade and exportmarkets. Kenya MalawiNigeria Uganda Ghana Indonesia NepalMexicoProduction 2,367,237 3,444,655 7,525,000 1,266,0001,100,0017,659,067 1,878,648 24,320,100(M tons)Grain loss (%) 20-2520-25 5-10 20-255-106-174-2210-25Mycotoxin25-30% 9% above27%30% above65-80%; 47%;50-83%; 20-89%;incidence (%)above 20 20 ppb 20 ppb; 50%30-2000 &gt;50 ppb &gt;50 ppb &gt;20 ppb ppbaflatoxinup to 10 ppb ppb aflatoxin aflatoxin aflatoxin aflatoxinaflatoxin 17. Sustainability Concerns Water: Lowering watertables and reducedavailability of water foragricultural purposes Nutrient depletion:Nepal, NE India,Myanmar, NEThailand. Soil erosion: S China,SE Asia Deforestation: SE Asia Increasing fertilizercosts, fertilizer scarcity 18. An era of challenges will always bean era of uncommon opportunities!! 19. Abiotic stress tolerant germplasm beingdeveloped through managed stress screeningDroughtWaterlogging Heat 20. Drought Tolerant Maize Varieties for Africa53 Drought tolerant maize varieties developed under DTMAby CIMMYT &amp; IITA in partnership with 13 African countries,occupying nearly 2 million hectares. 21. CIMMYT DT Maize Lines suitable for South &amp; SE AsiaElite DT lines from CIMMYT-Mexico,Zimbabwe &amp; Kenya evaluated for droughttoleranceLines from CIMMYT DT-populations,adapted to the tropical Asian region: Early maturity Yellow (Pool 18 Seq) Early maturity white (Pool 16 BN Seq) Medium maturity Yellow (DTPY c9) Medium maturity white (DTPW c9) Late maturity Yellow (Pool 26 Seq) Late maturity White (LP C7&amp; TS c5)PH Zaidi &amp; team, CIMMYT-India 22. Emphasis on heat tolerance of elite productsCombined heat and drought donorsDTMA PedigreeGY (t ha-1)91 CML311/MBR C3 Bc F12-2-2-20.63 238 DTPYC9-F46-1-2-1-20.59 . La Posta Seq C7-F64-2-6-2-2 0.5562 CML4350.49 231 DTPYC9-F143-5-4-1-2 0.4644 CML4420.19 Trial mean0.24Drought tolerance heat tolerance Drought + heat tolerance 23. Philippines takes lead in approving / commercializingBt maize and Glyphosate tolerant maizeIn Philippines, about 200,000 small farmers planted 350,000hectares (ha) of Bt maize farms in 2008, as compared to the10,769 ha in 2003, when the crop was approved forcommercialization. (ISAAA) 24. Disease Phenotyping 25. Improved maize germplasm from CIMMYT-Colombia, Mexico andZimbabwe helps hill maize farmers in Nepal and BhutanNon-QPM Variety (ICAV305) Yellow QPM varietyOn-farm trials of two GLS-resistant maize varieties in the hills of Bhutan,along with local check Yangtsipa 26. Fine mapping and developing breeder- ready markers for some major maize diseasesSliding windows-chromosome 2Maize Streak Virus 6e-04 5e-04 4e-04 Var 3e-04 2e-04 1e-04 Turcicum Leaf 0e+00 Blight0 1000 20003000 4000 5000 MarkerGray Leaf Spot 27. Nutritionally enriched maize in Asia Poshilo Makai-1Yunrui-1 (QPM + GLS resistance) Yunrui-8 (QPM + high oil)HQPM-1 (parents derived using QPM version of Vivek Hybrid- CML161 and CML163) 9 (using CML as donors) 28. MAS in breeding for Provitamin A enriched maize Deep orange ears++ MAS for LycE MAS for CrtRB1 Increase in -carotene from 1-2 ppm to &gt;10 ppm 29. Science (20 Nov 2009) Palomero genome about 22% (140 Mb) smaller than that of B73. Large number of unreported sequences =&gt; large pool of unexplored genetic diversity 30. Next-generation sequencing and HT genotyping454/FLX Genotyping-by-Sequencing GBS developed at Cornell data for 500,000 SNPsAB SOLiDTM and indels for $30 per sample at 96-plex sequencing (low depth, high coverage). Buckler lab is successfully implementing 384-plexSolexa sequencing, which should reduce run costs to</p>