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I. Authoritarian Oligarchy or Budding Democracy Between 1945-1991 global politics defined by competition between the USA and USSR Collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 left the Russian Federation as the largest piece of territory remaining from the USSR, its population was cut in half, but it still remained the largest country in the world in terms of geographic size

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RUSSIA Russia I. Authoritarian Oligarchy or Budding Democracy
Between global politics defined by competition between the USA and USSR Collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 left the Russian Federation as the largest piece ofterritory remaining from the USSR, its population was cut in half, but it still remained the largest country in the world in terms of geographic size Boris Yeltsin became 1st president of the Russian Federation, he initiated Shock Therapy reforms
Democracy Free Market Economy Oligarchy vs. Democracy Continued
Oligarchy a small group of Yeltsins family members and personal advisors took control of government and granted themselves favors, inviting political and economic corruption Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin in 1999 and has attempted to contain the oligarchs influence in some aspects of government: Centralization of Power in President Movement towards authoritarian rule Unpredictability of Russia (No experience with democracy and free market economy) Slavic roots provide strong tendency to autocratic rule Mr. Putin: Operative in the Kremlin
Read this article and visit this website url: Create a summary of your own profile of Mr. Putin Create a quick caricature of Putin.On each hand and foot place an item or gesture that is indicative of his four most important qualities, attributes, or methods for presiding over Russian growth and power. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power
Most of 20th century authority in Soviet Russia came from the Politburo of the Communist Party Politburo small group of men who climbed the ranks of the party through the nomenklatura system. Nomenklatura ordered path from local party soviets to the commanding heights of leadership When the Soviet Union dissolved the authority and power of the Politburo dissolved with it. Political Culture Characteristics Geographic Setting Eastern Orthodoxy
Equality of Result Hostile toward Government Importance of Nationality Geographic Setting Geographic Setting Largest country in world
Contains 11 time zones Majority of country is north of 49th degree latitude (U.S. Canada border) Abundance of Natural Resources that exist in inhospitable or inaccessible geographic locations Eastern Orthodoxy Eastern Orthodoxy
Early in their history Russians established ties with Constantinople and adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity as their religion This meant that they did not share the values of the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Russians came to value a strong state to protect them from geographic vulnerabilities instead of individualism Russian statism existed in contrast to Western civil society Eastern Orthodoxy also linked with the state, separation of church and state therefore did not exist in Russia Russia developed a sense of global mission linked to there self-proclaimed title as the Bastians of Eastern Christianity. This sense of global mission would be promoted by the Soviet Union in their spread and preservation of communism (the Third International) Equality of Result Equality of Result
Communist regime instilled a value of equality in the Russian people already strong in a country of peasants with similar living standards Egalitarianism has survived the fall of the Soviet Union Most Russians resent differences of wealth or income Equality of Result vs. Equality of Opportunity Russian political culture is not particularly conducive to the development of capitalism Hostility toward Government & Nationality
Hostility to Govt Despite strong, central authority and Russian statism citizens can be surprisingly hostile toward their government Years of repression spark resentment that leads to badmouthing of political leaders Pessimism towards political and economic policies Importance of Nationality Cultural heterogeneity Discrimination and historical stereotypes Baltic peoples usually viewed favorably, Muslim-Turks viewed in a negative light Anti-Semitism was strong under the Tsars, some nationalists in Russia blame the Jews for Russias current problems Black Russians from Chechnya Anti-Semitism alive and well
Anti-Semitism alive and well.Forbes list of billionaires from 2004, updated to determine which are Jewish. Political Culture Long tradition of the collective over the individual
Rather be personally less successful than see someone else be more successful, advancement seen as unethical or illegally gotten Who Wants to be a Russian Millionaire? (with rubles?) PC Putin attacks the new wealth of the oligarchs is largely applaudedby Russian people (consolidating power though?) Individuals do look out for themselves, however, in private lives, but depend on state to provide, and lack commitment to idea that those with ability who work hard should get ahead. Political Culture Strong attachment to security and order at expense of individual liberty and freedom Invasions=Mongols, Lithuanians and Poles, French, Germans, and Germans again. Tendency to defer to a leader who portrays a position of strength Political community=weakening attachment to Russian national identity (more on identity in subsequent sections) Napoleon and his Grand Army invade Russia. Pew Results Most Russians give the EU (64%) and U.S. (56%) positive reviews, but not NATO (37%). Pew Many in these three nations believe the enormous transformations that have taken place since the demise of the Soviet Union have had negative consequences for their societies. In particular, majorities in all three say the changes since 1991 have had a bad influence on the standard of living, the way people in society treat one another, law and order, and public morality. Pew Twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet empire, roughly half of Russians (48%) believe it is natural for their country to have an empire, while just 33% disagree with this idea. Half of Russians also agree with the statement it is a great misfortune that the Soviet Union no longer exists; 36% disagree. Pew Large majorities in all three nations believe that elites have prospered over the last two decades, while average citizens have not. Pew People in these former Soviet republics are much less confident that democracy can solve their countrys problems than they were in 1991. When asked whether they should rely on a democratic form of government or a leader with a strong hand to solve their national problems, only about three-in-ten Russians and Ukrainians choose democracy, down significantly from 1991. Pew Two decades after the Soviet Unions collapse, Russians, Ukrainians, and Lithuanians are unhappy with the direction of their countries and disillusioned with the state of their politics. Enthusiasm for democracy and capitalism has waned considerably over the past 20 years. Socialization and Communication
Govt uses control over communications in tsarist and Soviet times to transmit blueprint for society Tsars- Orthodoxy-tsar as head of Orthodox Church, divine right to rule Autocracy-unquestionable and absolute ruler Narodnost-tsar as father figure and unifier of Russian nation Tsars struggle with question of who belongs to Russian nation but emphasize ethnic Russian characteristics, at expense of minorities. Soviets as a result set up ethno-territorial homelands for minorities to gain their loyalty In Soviet Period Newspapers, other publications fit facts into framework of Soviet ideology Monopoly of political power for Communist Party, atheism, superiority of economic planning. Soviet legacy=suspicion of official government ideology Years of socialization about correctness of Marxist-Leninist Collapse of Soviet union=people find out how corrupt official ideology was Whole life of socialization only to find in the end its a lie! Socialization Soviets=most aspects of life (school, workplace, social organization, media, etc.) contribute to socialization Soviet control of these institutions in effort to develop support for regime. Post-Soviet=more difficult to manipulate, especially in 10 years before Putin Putin reasserts authority to control info.Media consolidated and in some cases under state control. Schools, cultural events, social organizations increasingly embrace nationalism and greatness of Putin. Cult of personality??Scholars still say no because of access to info from internet to cell phones. Socialized by Events? 1. New Communist leader, different than all others 2. Period of significant pol, econ, social reform 3. Collapse of the economy 4. Coup against Communist leader 5. Collapse of polit system and disintegration of country 6. New polit system with non-Comm leader 7. Violent conflict between branches of govtuse of military force 8. New constitution, new elections 9. Internal conflict leading to military against region 10. Increasing terrorism 11. Resignation of president 12. Consolidation of power in new President DESIRE FOR STABILITY AND ORDER?? Sources of Power Most of 20th century authority in Soviet Russia came from the Politburo of the Communist Party Politburo small group of men who climbed the ranks of the party through the nomenklatura system. Nomenklatura ordered path from local party soviets to the commanding heights of leadership When the Soviet Union dissolved the authority and power of the Politburo dissolved with it. Now strength of presidents executive power and strong central political authority Clientalism-personal career ties now dominated by the siloviki-security establishment whom Putin is tied to and worked extensively with Path to Power? Read the assigned excerpts about the nomenklatura system. Answer the questions at the end of the handout and summarize the excerpt. Legitimacy Political legitimacy for Russia is currently low, partly because changes are a drastic departure from the past Recent evidence that country is stabilizing under Putin. Putin use authoritarian strategies to solidify Russias weak, illiberal democracy. Historically Russias political legitimacy has

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