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Russia and Stalin Man of Steel. The Beginning of the Soviet Project. The Bolsheviks had consolidated power by early 1920 ’ s. Party membership did not exceeded 1% of the population Some opposition still remained. They viewed their revolution as internationally significant. War Communism. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Russia and StalinMan of Steel

  • The Beginning of the Soviet ProjectThe Bolsheviks had consolidated power by early 1920s.Party membership did not exceeded 1% of the populationSome opposition still remained.They viewed their revolution as internationally significant

  • War CommunismLeon Trotsky (1879-1940) organized the Red Army to suppress both internal and foreign opposition.White Russian opposition could not get properly organized.The nation was run by Lenin from the top, undemocratically.The government ran the banks, the transport system and heavy industry.All opposition was repressed.War Communism generated opposition.Peasants resisted the requisition of grainStrikes in 1920 and 1921Baltic fleet mutiny in March 1921.

  • Russian revolutionaries and leaders Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin at the Congress of the Russian Communist Party. (March 23, 1919)

  • The New Economic Plan (NEP)Outlined by Lenin in March 1921Private industry would be tolerated except for in:BankingHeavy IndustryTransportation International CommercePeasant farming for profit was legalized.The countryside stabilized.

  • The Soviet ModelThird International (Comintern) held in MoscowEstablished Soviet Union as model for revolutionary MarxismDevised 21 rules for nations wanting to engage in Marxist revolution - required acknowledgement of Soviet leadership - use of name Communist PartySought to end democratic socialismCreated fear - drove some to right wing regimes.

  • The Stalin/Trotsky RivalryAfter Lenins stroke in 1922 and his subsequent death in 1924, a power vacuum was left.Two factions emergedTrotsky FactionJoseph Stalin (1879-1953), general secretary of the party, Faction.Lenin had criticized both before his death, but especially Stalin.

  • 1878 1953Joseph DzhugashviliGori, GeorgiaPeasant Father Bootmaker1899 expelled from Seminary School1902 imprisoned exiled to Siberia1904 Escaped Siberia1905 met Lenin1911 editor of Pravda1917 Commissar of NationalitiesGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party (1922)

  • Trotskys PositionUrged rapid industrialization financed by state control of farm production.Collectivization of agricultureThe Soviet Union should encourage worldwide Socialist revolution

  • Stalins RiseHis position of general secretary allowed him to amass bureaucratic and administrative power.Manipulated intraparty rivalriesBacked Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938) in his battle with Trotsky over rapid industrializationAlso opposed Trotskys position on worldwide revolutionHe was thus able to eventually have Trotsky humiliated and exiled by 1929.

  • Russia: Rapid Industrializationthe slowing down of economic production, leads Soviet Communist leader Joseph Stalin to abandon Lenins New Economic Policy (NEP) and reject free market operationsseries of Five-Year Plans would rapidly increase government run heavy industriesThe State Planning Commission or Gosplan oversaw every aspect the economyeconomy grows 400% between 1928 and 1940


  • Economic Growth Heavy Industry111% coal, 200% iron, 335% electric production

  • 25 million migrated to citiesHired Foreign EngineersUnemployment unknownWomen worked in factories

  • 1928-1937- Production of capital goods and armaments Quadrupled production of heavy machinery Doubled oil productionWeapons increase tenfold or moreReal wages declined 43% b/w 1928-1940Housing and consumer goods declinedHuman cost?

  • Collectivization Stalin forces Russian peasants to give up their private farms and work collectively on farms owned by the state collectivesStalin felt this policy would end the hoarding of grain and produce enough domestic food and for foreign exportdekulakization the removal of any peasants, especially those who were well off, who resisted collectivization millions of peasants are killed, imprisoned, exiled to Siberia or starve to deathreligious leaders of many faiths are attacked and their places of worship closedby 1937, 90% of the countrys grain is collectivized10 million people died

  • Consumer Shortages in the Russian Citiesshortages of the basics housing, food, and clothingcities lacked proper transportation, sewer systems, paved streets and lightingcrime and disease widespread

  • Secret Police (NKDV), Purge Trials (1936-1939) accused of disloyalty enemies1937-1938 Great TerrorShot 1500 people a dayEliminate opposition - - high Soviet leaders, civilian party members, major party leaders, army officers, diplomats, intellectuals, Old Bolsheviks

  • The PurgesStalin, starting in 1933, gets rid of his enemies and opponents, both real and imagined in the Great Purgesthe assassination of party chief Sergei Kirov leads to the first purgesKirovs death still a mystery Killed either by party opponents or perhaps by Stalin himselfEx-high Soviet leader Bukharin along with other members of the Politburo are executedmillions of people (family members of government leaders, ordinary Soviet citizens, members of the military) are either executed or sent to labor campsStalins thirst for power and his paranoia caused the purgesCommunist Party moves away from the philosophies of Lenin and other early Communist leaders

  • Soviet system of forced labor campsOrigins 1917 Revolution Height during the reign of StalinWhite Sea-Baltic Sea Canal (1931-33) 141 mile canal100,000 prisoners pickaxes, shovels, wheel barrels created in just 20 months SUCCESS?Kolyma - harshest of all the camps means deathArctic region harsh temperatures, insufficient rations, sleep, and clothing 12-16 hour work day

  • More people passed through the GULAG than the Nazi concentration camps; yet, the GULAG is still not nearly as well know. WHY?Nazi camps used to exterminateGULAG weapon of ongoing political control over one countrytrials 5 minutes sentences 8-10 yearsArticle 58 (1928) anti-Soviet activity25% political prisonersMining, rail construction, arms & chemical factories, electricity plants, fish canning, airport, apartment, and sewage construction

  • Single leader Revolutionary transformationTreated as a benevolent "guide" for the nationTransformation to a better future cannot occur without himSupermanPropagandaHero Worship Uncle Joe

  • Ideas are far more powerful than guns. We don't allow our enemies to have guns, why should we allow them to have ideas? - STALIN

  • 20+ Million Deaths = Starvation, Forced Labor Camps, Purges

  • What role did Stalin play in the history of our country?POSITIVE 53%NEGATIVE 33%Had difficulty answering the question 14%

    BBC World News Service


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