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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Presented by:

    Dr. Julie Esparza Brown, Portland State University

    Dr. Amanda Sanford, Portland State University

    Ms. Erin Lolich, Tigard-Tualatin School District

    RTI for English Language Learners: Appropriate Screening, Progress

    Monitoring, and Instructional Planning

  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Key Questions to be Answered in this Presentation  Who are ELL students?

     What do we need to know about their background to provide appropriate instruction and interventions?

     Can and should we use the same progress monitoring tools with ELLs as we do with their monolingual English peers?

     What are the unique considerations for screening and progress monitoring ELLs?

     How do we set appropriate goals for ELLs?

     What is an example of use of the screening and progress monitoring tools with ELLs?

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Response to Intervention

    Response to intervention integrates student assessment and evidence-based instructional interventions within a multi-level prevention framework in order to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems (NCRTI, 2009)

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Critical Features of RTI

     Use of screening and formative assessment data to identify students at risk for reading difficulties

     Monitoring the effectiveness of instruction (i.e., progress monitoring), and

     Implementation of multi-tiered evidence-based instruction matched to students’ instructional needs

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Goal

     For all students to develop the skills to access the general education curriculum in order to meet or exceed state and national benchmarks.

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Core plus

    intensive evidence-based

    Intervention (5% of all students)

    Core plus strategic evidence- based intervention

    (15% of all students)

    Core curriculum & instruction for ALL students: school-wide reading, behavior, math and/or writing, includes sheltered

    instruction and culturally relevant teaching (80% of all students)

    For ELLS: includes English language development instruction

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Premises for Equity

    All educators must:

     Understand that education is a social entitlement achieved only when we provide equitable educational opportunities with high expectations for all students.

     Understand the linguistic, cultural and experiential context of every student and how to systematically incorporate this knowledge (including the use of their native language) into curriculum and instruction.

     Based on students’ unique backgrounds, plan and adapt appropriate assessment and instruction.

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Factor 1  English Language Learner (ELL) students are a

    heterogeneous group.

    • ELL students in the U.S. represent over 400 languages

    • The largest group are from homes where Spanish is the native language.

    • Projections estimate that by 2050 non-Hispanic white students will account for only 47% of the U.S. population.

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    First: Know Your Student

  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    First: Know Your Student

    Factor 2  Linguistic Backgrounds

    “Second languages develop under an extremely heterogeneous set of conditions, far more diverse than the conditions under which children learn their native language (Bialstok & Hakuta, 1994, p. 2).”

    • ELL students may not have the opportunity to develop their first language (L1) fully before adding the second language (L2).

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    First: Know Your Student Factor 2

     Language Proficiency • The five stages of the second

    language continuum 1. Preproduction/Entering

    2. Early Production/Beginning

    3. Speech Emergence/Developing

    4. Intermediate Fluency/Expanding

    5. Advanced Fluency/Bridging

    • Students MUST acquire academic English (levels 4 to

     BICS: Social Language

    • Can develop in as little as two years

     CALP: Academic Language

    • May take 5 to 9 or more years to develop

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    Students MUST acquire academic English (levels 4 to 5) to benefit from

    English-only instruction.

  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Factor 3  Background Experiences

    • Country of origin

    – 52% of all ELL students are born in the U.S.

    – 11% are foreign born (first generation)

    – Differences in generational language patterns have been identified (Valdes & Figueroa, 1994)

    • Socioeconomic Status

    – Research highlights significant differences in vocabulary and language from individuals with low SES status (Hart & Risley, 2005); these may strongly impact L1 and L2 language development

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    First: Know Your Student

  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Factor 4

     Educational Experiences

    • Students who have 4-5 years of formal education in their L1 frequently acquire academic English within one to three years.

    • These students can transfer what they have learned in L1 to help their learning in L2.

    • Urban and rural educations in other countries can be vastly different.

    • A student’s age alone is not a reliable indicator of prior educational experiences.

    • Students with interrupted instruction may need instruction in many foundational skills no matter their age.

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    First: Know Your Student

  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Native Language Instruction

     Research has consistently demonstrated that better outcomes in English for ELL students are tied directly to the amount of instruction received in the native language (Goldenberg, 2008).

     The longer ELLs receive native language instruction, the better they perform in English in all academic areas.

     ELL students receiving English-only instruction have a double cognitive load:

    • They need to learn English

    • They need to learn IN English

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Second: Know Your Curriculum

     RTI is predicated upon appropriate instruction for all students in Tier 1 (general education).

    • Is this happening at your school?

    • Where is this happening?

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    A Critical Component: Formative Assessment

     Screening

    • Universal screening is conducted on a regular basis (2 – 3 times per year) for all students

    • Screening assessments are brief, individual, and will identify which students are struggling with core concepts

     Progress Monitoring

    • Occurs more frequently than screening assessments

    • Tools must be valid and reliable

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Should the Same Screening and Progress Monitoring Assessment be Used with ELL Students?

     Reliability: does the assessment produce similar scores across conditions and situations?

    • Reliability is not a particular problem if the tool has good psychometric properties.

     Validity: does the test measure what you want to assess?

    • Validity may be a problem because assessment results could be influenced by students’ language, cultural and experiential backgrounds.

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Screening and Progress Monitoring in a Problem Solving Approach

    1. Define the problem

    2. Analyze

    3. Develop a Plan

    4. Evaluate

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Unique Considerations for Screening ELLs (Brown & Sanford, in preparation)

    1. Use tools with demonstrated reliability and validity to identify and monitor students’ needs for instructional support in reading in both L1 and L2.

    2. Assess students’ language skills in L1 and L2 to provide an appropriate context regarding evaluation of current levels of performance.

    3. Plan instruction based on what you know about the student’s performance and literacy experiences in L1 and L2 and teach for transfer if needed.

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Unique Considerations for Progress Monitoring ELLs (Brown & Sanford, in preparation)

    1. Monitor student’s progress in all languages of instruction

    2. Set rigorous goals that support students to meet grade-level standards

    3. Evaluate growth frequently, increasing intensity of instruction when growth is less than expected

    4. Evaluate growth of true peers to determine whether instruction is generally effective for students with similar linguistic and educational experiences

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  • National Center on Response to Intervention

    Case

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