rome and greece

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Bronze Age Greece - MapCrete Knossos Phaistos Cyclades Thera Paros Naxo Mainland Attica Athens Mycenae Argos Pylos Tiryns Asia Minor Troy Mytilene Dardanelles


Crete Minoans

Timeline Bronze Age 3000 BCE 1100 BCE Dark Age & Geometric 1100-700 BCE Orientalizing Period 700-600 BCE Archaic Greece 600- 480 BCE Transition Period 480-450 BC The High Classical Period 450-400 BCE The Fourth Century 400-300 BC Hellenistic Period 323-31 BCEssays on Greece: Essay Question 1: Who were the Minoans? List and describe three ways their art influenced the art of a later period in Athens. The Minoans were: (Wikipedia, references,, Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete.

The Minoan culture flourished from approximately 2700 to 1450 BC; afterwards, Mycenaean Greek culture became dominant on Crete.

3 The term "Minoan" was coined by the British archeologist Sir Arthur Evans after the mythic "king" Minos.[1] Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth, which Evans identified as the site at Knossos. What the Minoans called themselves is unknown. In the Odyssey which was composed centuries after the destruction of the Minoan civilization, Homer calls the natives of Crete Eteocretans ("true Cretans"); these may have been descendants of the Minoans. Minoan palaces are the best known building types to have been excavated on the island. They are monumental buildings serving administrative purposes as evidenced by the large archives unearthed by archeologists. Each of the palaces excavated to date has its own unique features, but they also share features which set them apart from other structures. The palaces were often multi-storied, with interior and exterior staircases, light wells, massive columns, storage magazines and courtyards. For the Minoans produced a singular civilization in antiquity: one oriented around trade and bureaucracy with little or no evidence of a military state. They built perhaps the single most efficient bureaucracy in antiquity. In 1870, an amateur archaeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, determined to find the real Troy of the Trojan War, the war that is the center of the Homeric poems. After successfully locating and digging up Troy, he turned his sights to the Greek mainland and discovered two ancient cities, Myceanae and Tiryns, which together revealed a civilization that up until that point had only been known in the poems of Homer and Greek drama. His discoveries inspired a man named Arthur Evans to begin digging in Crete in order to discover what he thought would be an identical, Mycenean culture thriving on that island; instead, what he found was a people far more ancient than the Myceneans, and far more unique than any peoples in the ancient world: the Minoans. They were a people of magnificent social organization, culture, art, and commerce. There is no evidence that they were a military people; they thrived instead, it seems, on their remarkable mercantile abilities. This lack of a military culture, however, may have spelled their final downfall. For the Minoans also exported their culture as well as goods, and a derivative culture grew up on the mainland of Greece, the Myceneans, who were a war-like people. Strangely enough, the direct inheritors of their traditions may have been the agents of their destruction. Art: The art of the Minoans included large wall frescoes, ceramics, small figurines of terracotta and others of faience, and other works in stone. In the Early Minoan period ceramics were characterised by linear patterns of spirals, triangles, curved lines, crosses, fishbone motifs, and such. In the Middle Minoan period naturalistic designs such as fish, squid, birds, and lilies were common. In the Late Minoan period, flowers and animals were still the most characteristic, but the variability had increased. The 'palace style' of the region around Knossos is characterised by a strong geometric simplification of naturalistic shapes and monochromatic paintings. Very noteworthy are the similarities between Late Minoan and Mycenaean art. 3 ways their art influenced later art in Athens:

4 1. The early pottery design, incorporated with animals, their geometric motifs and knowledge of fine burnished pottery is clearly visible in the pottery of the late athenians. The amphoras, Kraters and other forms of athenian potters display many aspects of their minoan counterparts. Curved lines, and naturalistic designs even the minoan wall frescoes, even the geometric shapes (tea pots ect) influenced the pottery and images found on athenian pottery in later times (motifs of full movement - battles - ajax and achilles playing games). Paintinged images by Euphronios, Exekias and the geometric shapes of later pieces can all be linked to three stages of minoan art. The characteristic elegance of form of Minoan potter is complemented by the dynamic lines of naturalistic scenes that decorate the surfaces are easily seen in the later athenian pottery. 2. Minoan Architecture displayed arrangements of the buildings around a central court, the fine facades of closely fitted blocks of porous stone, the large numbers of magazines, the sacred rooms, the different levels and storeys connected by small staircases, and the monumental entrances. (Second palace period) Architecture progressed through the next level and had tiers of doors (Polythyra), thrones and benches, as well as bathrooms and interior light wells, and there were rows of sacred quarters and magazines, crypts, and halls for audiences, banquet and sacred ceremonies. Finally, there were ancillary areas of all kinds, including workshops, and a water supply and drainage system based on very ingenuous principles. Athenian Architecture also displays many of the features such as the grand entrances displayed in Erectheion or 3. Minoan Paintings, Frescos? Archaic sculpture deriving from Cycladic figures? (Input appreciated) Essay #2 Data from: , It has been suggested that the rich graves at Mycenae indicate military connections with Egypt, with Mycenean mercenaries bringing wealth home from foriegn wars. Name and briefly describe two types of artifacts found in the shaft graves of Mycenae. 1) There are numerous swords of two basic varieties: Type A (more common; rounded shoulders, short thin tang, very long; derived from Minoan prototypes such as the Protopalatial "ceremonial" swords from Mallia) and Type B (relatively rare; squared shoulders, broader tang, shorter and broader blade; derived from Minoan and Levantine prototypes in the form of daggers but first developed into a true sword on the Mainland, probably at Mycenae). Some swords are decorated on the blades with incised ornament, as often representational as abstract, while the hilts are often covered with richly decorated gold sheet and the pommels consist of handsomely carved lumps of ivory, alabaster, or marble. Display Minoan items taken from the conquering of Crete. I.E several swords, daggers and vessels from the Shaft Graves display designs and scenes composed of inlaid gold, silver and niello (a black metallic compound), reminiscent of early New Kingdom Egypt, with some of the hunting scenes of definite Egyptian origin, though possibly acquired via Minoan intermediaries. 2) Metal Vessels:

5 Of gold, silver, and bronze, most of these pieces are of Minoan shapes (e.g. Vapheio cups, ewers, rhyta), but Mainland tastes are also reflected in the numerous two-handled goblets and kantharoi which are particularly common among the gold vessels. Some unusual shapes in silver include a rhyton in the form of a bull's head comparable to Minoan examples in steatite, the "Silver Siege Rhyton" (decorated in relief with the scene of an attack on a fortified town) and the "Battle Krater" (decorated in relief with a scene of crowded combat between warriors outfitted with boars'-tusk helmets), and the "Stag Rhyton" (possibly an import from central Anatolia where zoomorphic rhyta of this type are quite common in Hittite art). Of the twenty-eight vessels of solid gold, most are rather clumsily made and exhibit technical features which are atypical of Minoan craftsmanship in precious metalwork. These are therefore almost without exception to be considered the products of local craftsmen. The vast majority of the forty-two silver vessels, on the other hand, are far more carefully made and exhibit technical features well paralleled in silver plate found in Protopalatial and Neopalatial Crete. The bulk of these silver vases are therefore identified either as imports from Crete or as products of Minoan craftsmen made on demand for Mainland patrons at Mycenae. Gold indicates amassing the wealth from other parts of the world. Frescoes in the tombs of the Theban nobles who served Hatshepsut and Thutmose III portray foreign emissaries whose physiognomy, pigmentation, hair style and dress exactly resemble Aegean portraits of themselves. Those and later frescoes, along with Thutmose III's bas relief from Karnak, depict metal vessels which correspond in material, shape and decoration to the cups, goblets, pitchers, jars, conical pouring vessels, animal-headed containers and figurines which excavators have found in the rich graves of Mycenaean Greece, the mansions on Santorini, and the palaces and villas of Crete. The archaeologists of Egypt and the Levant have also discovered a number of actual Aegean exports of (and slightly later than) the Shaft Grave Period in contexts which are clearly contemporaneous with Thutmose III. (Input?) Note: Getting Tired, going to revert to more note form now. Would like to be playing video games and watching Hells Kitchen but I must push on.... Essay #3: Describe and contrast the treatment of the human f