RMK Chapter 4: Survey Research l Types of Surveys (Q & I) Types of Surveys (Q & I) Types of Surveys (Q & I) l Types of Questions Types of Questions Types

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<ul><li><p>RMK Chapter 4: Survey ResearchTypes of Surveys (Q &amp; I)Types of QuestionsDecisions about Question ContentDecisions about Response FormatDecisions about Question WordingDecisions about Question PlacementConducting InterviewsAdvantages / Disadvantages of Methods</p></li><li><p>Types of Surveys</p><p>Questionnaires and Interviews</p></li><li><p>QuestionnairesGroup administrationMail administrationHousehold drop offWeb-based</p></li><li><p>InterviewsPersonalTelephone</p></li><li><p>Types of Questions</p></li><li><p>Type of QuestionsUnstructuredOpen ended / short comment box / transcript of interview / narrativeStructuredDetails in following slides</p></li><li><p>Structured QuestionsDichotomous____Yes____NoMaleFemale</p></li><li><p>Structured QuestionsNominalOccupational Class:</p><p>1 = Truck driver2 = Lawyer3 = etc.</p></li><li><p>Structured QuestionsOrdinalRank the candidates in order of preference frombest to worst...</p><p>___ Bob Dole___ Bill Clinton___ Newt Gingrich___ Al Gore</p></li><li><p>Structured QuestionsIntervalLikert Response Scale12345stronglydisagreeneutralagreestronglydisagreeagree</p></li><li><p>Structured QuestionsIntervalSemantic Differentialverysome-neithersome-verymuchwhatwhatmuchinterestingboringsimplecomplexuncaringcaringusefuluselessetc.</p></li><li><p>Structured QuestionsIntervalGuttman (Cumulative) Scale___Are you willing to permit immigrants to live in your country?</p><p>___Are you willing to permit immigrants to live in your community?</p><p>___Are you willing to permit immigrants to live in your neighborhood?</p><p>___Would you be willing to have an immigrant live next door to you?</p><p>___Would you let your child marry an immigrant?</p></li><li><p>Filter or Contingency QuestionsHave you ever smoked marijuana?yesno</p></li><li><p>Filter or Contingency QuestionsHave you ever smoked marijuana?yesnoIf yes, about how many times have you smoked marijuana?once2 to 5 times6 to 10 times11 to 20 timesmore than 20 times</p></li><li><p>Filter or Contingency QuestionsTry to avoid having more than three levels (two jumps) for any question.If only two levels, use graphic to jump (for example, arrow and box).If all responses cant fit on the page, then jump to a new page.Electronic advantages (web pages)Can be programs to move forward in a specific way based on response.</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question Content</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentExampleDo you need the age of each child or just the number of children under 16?ExampleDo you need to ask income or can you estimate?Is the question necessary / useful?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentExamples: Bad QuestionWhat are your feelings towards African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans?What do you think of proposed changes in benefits and hours?Are several questions needed?Dont combine two issues in one...</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentIf you ask about earnings, might not mention all incomeIf ask if theyre in favor of public TV, ask for whom (might not mention its because of Sesame Street for the kids)Are several questions needed?Did you get all the info desired...</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentIf you ask research participants about attitudes towards a specific religion, can you interpret the results without finding out about their attitudes towards religion?Are several questions needed?Do you need more context to interpret answer...</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentIf they say they support public TV do they watch it?would they be willing to have their tax dollars spent on it?Are several questions needed?Need more info to determine the intensity...</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentExamplesDo you think Dean Rusk acted correctly in the Bay of Pigs crisis? -- cant say if they dont know who he is.In TV surveys, regular watchers can be asked about program content, never watch should not be asked.Do respondents have the needed info?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentHow well did you like the book? Versus...Did you recommend the book to others?Did you look for other books by that author?Does question need to be more specific?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentFor instance, seasonal specificity.If you ask what they usually watch and its summer, youll get a different answer than in the winter.Is question sufficiently general?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentAsk about the benefits of a tax cut without asking about the disadvantagesAsk about the disadvantages of eliminating welfare without asking about the benefitsIs question biased or loaded?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question ContentTo find out age or income, give brackets.[18-22], [23-27], etc.To find out about charitable contributions, ask how much people you know typically give.To find out what magazines they read, offer to buy used ones.Will respondent answer truthfully?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About the Response Format</p></li><li><p>Should the Response Format be...Single option vs. multi-optionStructuredDichotomous (two possibilities)Multiple choiceFill-in-the-blankScale - interval (e.g., Likert response format, semantic differential, Guttmann scale)Checklist see next slideUnstructuredOpen ended / free answer / narrative</p></li><li><p>If Checklist...are all alternatives covered?is it of reasonable length?is the wording impartial?is the form of the response easy, uniform?If its possible that there may be some other alternatives, provide other option and allow open ended response.</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question Wording</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question WordingQuestions about nationality or marital status are too vague.Questions about mass media are too general.What kind of headache remedy do you use?Want brand name?Want type? (Aspirin, pill, or capsule?)Can the question be misunderstood?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question WordingIf you ask what social class someones in, you assume that they know what social class is and that they think of themselves as being in one.Check assumption in a previous question.What assumptions does question make?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question WordingDo you think Congress will cut taxes?Do you think Congress will successfully resist tax cuts?Neither of these specifies a time frame.Is the time frame specified?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question WordingAre working conditions satisfactory or not satisfactory in the plant where you work?ObjectiveDo you feel that working conditions are satisfactory or not satisfactory in the plant where you work?FeelingAre you personally satisfied with working conditions in the plant where you work?Personal satisfactionHow personal is the wording?Ensure Appropriate Context for the study</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question WordingHow did you feel about being in the war? - May be too directHow well did the equipment hold up in the field?How well were new recruits trained?Is the wording too direct?</p></li><li><p>Decisions About Question WordingDoes question contain difficult or unclear terminology?Does the question make each alternative explicit?Is the wording objectionable?Is the wording loaded or slanted?Some Additional Issues...</p></li><li><p>Question Placement and Sequence</p></li><li><p>Decisions About PlacementIs the answer influenced by prior questions?Does question come too early or too late to arouse interest?Does the question receive sufficient attention?</p></li><li><p>The Opening QuestionsThese are particularly true in the case of an interview.Should be easy to answerShould not be sensitive materialShould get the respondent rolling</p><p>In a survey, considerputting basic demographic questions towards the end of a survey because these are easy to complete and thus it may overcome survey fatigue.</p></li><li><p>Sensitive QuestionsOnly after trust is developedShould make sense in that section of the survey (not out of left field)Precede with warm-up questions</p></li><li><p>A Checklist of Considerations (slide 1)Start with easy, nonthreatening questions.Put more difficult, threatening questions near end.Never start mail survey with an open-ended question.Put demographics at end (unless needed to screen).</p></li><li><p>A Checklist of Considerations (slide 2)Avoid demographics at beginning.For historical demographics, follow chronological order.Ask about one topic at a time.When switching topics, use a transition.Reduce response set.For filter or contingency questions, make a flowchart.</p></li><li><p>Important RuleKeep questionnaire as short as possible!</p></li><li><p>Interviews</p></li><li><p>The Role of the InterviewerLocate and enlist cooperation of respondents.Motivate respondents to do good job.Clarify any confusion/concerns.Observe quality of responses.Conduct a good interview.</p></li><li><p>Training the Interviewers (slide 1)Describe the entire study.State who is sponsor of research.Teach enough about survey research (should respect method and be motivated).Explain the sampling logic and process.Explain interviewer bias.Walk through interview.</p></li><li><p>Training the Interviewers (slide 2)Explain selection procedures, includingReading mapsIdentifying householdsIdentify respondentsRehearse interviewExplain supervisionExplain scheduling</p></li><li><p>The Interviewers KitOfficial-looking 3-ring notebookMapsSufficient copies of surveyOfficial identificationA cover letterA phone number to call</p></li><li><p>The InterviewOpening remarksAsking the questionsObtaining adequate answersRecording the responseConcluding the interview</p><p>More Details on Following Slides</p></li><li><p>Opening RemarksGaining entry -- appearance, confidence, non-threateningDoorstep technique -- brief, suggest dont askIntroduction -- name, organization, credentialsExplaining the study -- general, stress confidentiality</p></li><li><p>Asking the QuestionsUse questionnaire carefully, but informally.Ask questions exactly as writtenFollow the order given.Ask every question.Dont finish sentences.Dont leave any questions blank.</p></li><li><p>Obtaining Adequate Responses - The ProbeSilent probe - a pauseOvert encouragementElaborationHow do you mean? Anything else?Ask for clarificationRepetition</p></li><li><p>Recording the ResponseRecord responses immediatelyInclude all probes (write them in)Use abbreviations where possible (for exampleR = respondent; DK = dont know)</p></li><li><p>Concluding the InterviewThank respondent.Dont be brusque or hasty.Immediately after leaving -- write down any notes about how the interview went.</p></li><li><p>Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Methods (general assessment)</p></li><li><p>Visual Presentations Possible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Visual Presentations Possible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesYesYesNoYesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Long Response Categories Possible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Long Response Categories Possible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesYes?NoYesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Privacy?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Privacy?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesNoNo?NoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Flexible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Flexible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNoNoYesYesNoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Open-ended Questions Feasible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Open-ended Questions Feasible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNoNoYesYesNoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Reading and Writing Needed?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Reading &amp; Writing Needed?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesYesNoNo?InterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Can You Judge Quality of Response?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Can You Judge Quality of Response?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNo?Yes?YesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>High Response Rates?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>High Response Rates?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNoYesYesNoYesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Explain Study in Person?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Explain Study in Person?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNoYesYes?YesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Low Cost?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Low Cost?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesNoNoNoYesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Staff and Facilities Low?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Staff and Facilities Low?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesNoNoNoYesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Access to Dispersed Samples?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Access to Dispersed Samples?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesNoNoNoNoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Respondent Has Time to Formulate Answers?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Respondent Has Time to Formulate Answers?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesYesNoNoNoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Personal Contact?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Personal Contact?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNoYesYesNoYesInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Long Survey Feasible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Long Survey Feasible?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffNoNoYesNoNoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Quick Turnaround?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li><li><p>Quick Turnaround?QuestionnaireGroupMailDrop-OffYesNoNoYesNoInterviewPersonalPhone</p></li></ul>


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