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  • Rhythm in Poetry MeterFree VerseRhymeAlliteration and OnomatopoeiaPracticeThe Sounds of PoetryFeature Menu

  • Like music, poetry is based on rhythmthe alternation of stressed and unstressed sounds that makes the voice rise and fall.Rhythm in Poetry

  • Poetic rhythm can take the form of meter a strict rhythmic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in each linefree verse a loose kind of rhythm that sounds like natural speech[End of Section]Rhythm in Poetry

  • In metrical poetry, stressed and unstressed syllables are arranged in a regular pattern.The mountain mists, condensing at our voiceUnder the moon, had spread their snowy flakes,From the keen ice shielding our linkd sleep. from Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley Listen to this excerpt. Which syllables are stressed in each line? Meter = stressed syllable = unstressed syllable

  • Marking the stressed () and unstressed () syllables of each line is called scanning a poem.MeterVarying the meterThe mountain mists, condensing at our voiceUnder the moon, had spread their snowy flakes,From the keen ice shielding our linkd sleep. from Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley

  • Metrical poetry is made up of metrical units called feet. A foot consists of at least one stressed syllable and usually one or more unstressed syllables. Meter

    Five Metrical FeetSingle-Word Examplesiambinsisttrocheedoubleanapestunderstanddactylexcellentspondeefootball

  • Identify the dominant metrical foot in these lines: iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl, or spondee.Tell me not, in mournful numbers,from A Psalm of Life by Henry Wadsworth LongfellowI am monarch of all I survey; from The Solitude of Alexander Selkirk by W. CowperWhen wasteful war shall statues overturn,from Sonnet 55 by William ShakespeareMeter[End of Section]Quick Check

  • Tell me not, in mournful numbers,from A Psalm of Life by Henry Wadsworth LongfellowI am monarch of all I survey; from The Solitude of Alexander Selkirk by W. CowperWhen wasteful war shall statues overturn, from Sonnet 55 by William ShakespeareMeteriambanapesttrochee Identify the dominant metrical foot in these lines: iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl, or spondee.Quick Check

  • Because it is free of metric rules, free verse sounds more like prose or everyday speech than formal poetry.Free verse is poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme.Never, in all your career of worrying, did you imaginewhat worries could occur concerning the flying cat.You are traveling to a distant city.The cat must travel in a small box with holes.from The Flying Cat by Naomi Shihab NyeThe Imagists[End of Section]Free Verse

  • Rhyme is the repetition of the accented vowel sound and all subsequent sounds in a word.A slumber did my spirit seal; I had no human fears: She seemed a thing that could not feel The touch of earthly years.from A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal by William WordsworthRhyme Listen to this excerpt. What words rhyme?

  • The chiming sounds of rhymepunctuate the poems rhythmgive the poem structuremake the poem easier to rememberRhyme

  • End rhyme is rhyme that occurs at the ends of lines.Internal rhyme is rhyme within a line.Rhyme

  • In an exact rhyme, the words rhyme perfectly.heartstartflickerthickerorderingborderingIn an approximate rhyme, the sounds are similar but not exactly the same.lightlatewhisperwinterbayswavesRhymes may be exact or approximate.Rhyme

  • Identify the exact and approximate end rhymes in these stanzas.Rhyme[End of Section]Quick CheckAll suddenly the wind comes soft,And Spring is here again;And the hawthorn quickens with buds of green,And my heart with buds of pain.

    My heart all Winter lay so numbThe earth so dead and froreThat I never thought the Spring would comeOr my heart wake any more.from Song by Rupert Brooke

  • exact rhymes: numb/comefrore/moreapproximate rhymes:again/green/painRhymeIdentify the exact and approximate end rhymes in these stanzas.Quick CheckAll suddenly the wind comes soft,And Spring is here again;And the hawthorn quickens with buds of green,And my heart with buds of pain.

    My heart all Winter lay so numbThe earth so dead and froreThat I never thought the Spring would comeOr my heart wake any more.from Song by Rupert Brooke

  • Listen to this excerpt. What consonant sound is repeated?Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds in words that appear close together.More about alliterationA long, long yellow on the lawn,A hubbub as of feet; Not audible, as ours to us, But dapperer, more sweet;from A long, long yellow on the lawn by Emily DickinsonAlliteration and Onomatopoeia

  • Listen to this excerpt. What word is an example of onomatopoeia?Onomatopoeia is the use of words that sound like what they mean.Here the water went down, the icebergs slid with gravel, the gaps and the valleys hissedfrom Prairie by Carl SandburgAlliteration and Onomatopoeia

  • Alliteration and Onomatopoeia[End of Section]I shall come near your window, where you look out when your eyes open in the morning, And there I shall slam together bird-houses and bird-baths for wing-loose wrens and hummers to live in, birds with yellow wing tips to blur and buzz soft all summer,from Broken-face Gargoyles by Carl Sandburg In this excerpt, find at least two examples of alliteration and onomatopoeia.Quick Check

  • In this excerpt, find at least two examples of alliteration and onomatopoeia.Alliteration and OnomatopoeiaQuick CheckAlliterationOnomatopoeia I shall come near your window, where you look out when your eyes open in the morning, And there I shall slam together bird-houses and bird-baths for wing-loose wrens and hummers to live in, birds with yellow wing tips to blur and buzz soft all summer, from Broken-face Gargoyles by Carl Sandburg

  • As in ancient days, when poetry was not written but only spoken or sung, poetry today is addressed to the ear. You cant really say that you know a poem until youve heard it read aloud.Choose one of the poems youve read in this chapter (or any favorite poem), and read it aloud to yourself and then to a partner or a small group.Then, write a paragraph or two discussing the poems rhythm, rhyme, or other sound effects.Practice[End of Section]

  • The End

  • Approximate rhymes are also called half rhymes, slant rhymes, or imperfect rhymes.Rhyme

  • keep the meter from sounding monotonousVarying the meter occasionally helps todraw attention to key words in the poem What words are emphasized in the last line?MeterThe mountain mists, condensing at our voiceUnder the moon, had spread their snowy flakes,From the keen ice shielding our linkd sleep. from Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley

  • The ImagistsFree verse began with the imagists, some early twentieth-century American and English poets who decided to free poetry from the old metric rules and focus on imagery alone.Free VerseEzra Pound

  • More About AlliterationStrictly speaking, alliteration occurs at the beginnings of words or on accented syllables. However, it would not be wrong to identify the l's in the word "yellow" as examples of alliteration. More Sound EffectsA long, long yellow on the lawn,A hubbub as of feet; Not audible, as ours to us, But dapperer, more sweet;from A long, long yellow on the lawn by Emily Dickinson

    ***********************keen, ice, shielding, sleep**

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