revolutions and independence movements 1750-1914
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Revolutions and Independence Movements1750-1914
Aim: How did the ideals of the Enlightenment lead to revolutions?A Study of the American, French, Haitian, and Latin American Revolutions
The American Revolution
A growing sense of patriotismBritains mounting debt Colonial merchants desire for more successEnlightenment influences
The French and Indian WarBritish colonists in America felt that French colonial settlements were a direct threatIn 1763 the British defeated the French in the French and Indian War (A.K.A. The Seven Years War)To read about scalping during the French and Indian War click hereTHE DELICATE ART OF SCALPING
European Land in the Americas17th Century
The Results of the French and Indian WarThe French were pushed northward All territory East of Mississippi River went to BritainSpain received New Orleans and French LouisianaSpain ceded Florida to BritainThe American colonists became unified after fighting a common enemyThe War caused serious debt that the British crown needed to alleviate
The British:American colonists should help defray the cost of the French and Indian War.The Americans:Americans should not have to be burdened with taxes.Google Images
THOMAS JEFFERSONThomas Jefferson was influenced by the writings of John Locke.Jefferson used several of Lockes ideas when he authored the Declaration of Independence.
ON THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENTMen enter into society to protect their property; they choose a government to make laws and set rules for this reason.-John Locke- Two Treatises on GovernmentAll men are created equal; their Creator has given themcertain rights which cannot be taken away; among these arelife, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Governments are formed by men to protect these rights.-Thomas Jefferson- The Declaration of Independence
WHEN REVOLUTION IS JUSTIFIEDWhenever the government tries to take away their propertyor their freedom, the government has really declared war on thepeople.John Locke-Two Treatises on Government
Whenever a government attempts to take away rather than protectthese rights, the people have the right to abolish or change thatgovernment.Thomas Jefferson- The Declaration of Independence
THE GRAVITY OF REVOLUTIONPeople will suffer a great deal before they will begin to complain.After such suffering, people are right in trying to put the laws in thehands of a government which will protect their rights.-John Locke- Two Treatises on GovernmentWhen people have been made to suffer over long periods of time, and have had their rights taken away, it is not only their right but their duty to throw off such a government and to provide new guards for their future safety.-Thomas Jefferson- The Declaration of Independence
Enlightenment InfluencesLocke MontesquieuQ: To what extent did the Declaration of Independence address individual liberties?
http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htmIdentify the Enlightenment principles in the Bill of Rights.
How were the Bill of Rights a response to the eventsthat caused the American Revolution?
The French Revolutionhttp://historywiz.com/oldregime.htm
The Ancien RegimeThe First Estate100,000 ClergyThe Second Estate400,000 NoblesThe Third Estate24 million serfs, free peasants, bourgeoisieGoogle imagesThink about itEach Estategot one vote!What do you thinkhappened at voting timein the Estates General?
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizenhttp://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/searchimages/116.jpg
Q: Identify principles from the Enlightenment.https://www.college.columbia.edu/core/students/cc/settexts/nafman89.pdf
We must smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people's enemies by terror. Fordham.eduhttp://www.chd.univ-rennes1.fr/Icono/Thiers/20ThiersHRFt0304Robespierre.jpg
The Guillotinehttp://www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/dixont/images_clip_image002_0000.jpgRobespierre is guillotined
Is this square doomed??Use a mathematical approach to solve this.
The Era of NapoleonGoogle Images
After the French Revolution was over a weak, 5-man council called the Directory was formed.Napoleon Bonaparte assumed power. He called himself the First Consul, then Consul for Life, and then Emperor.He passed a civil code that gave equality to all men, and it protected private property.Free speech was limited and newspapers were censored.Women, who had been more active during the Revolution, were set back politically and socially by Napoleon.
http://www.ohiou.edu/~chastain/dh/divorce.htmWomen and DivorceIn France duringThe Napoleonic Era
The Napoleonic WarsNapoleon led France into war in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (Belgium) June 18, 1815.http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/encyclopedia/article_show/Waterloo/m0018316.htmlClick the link to see a recreation of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Haitian RevolutionOn the eve of revolution French Haiti (Saint Domingue) had a population on 40,000 white French settlers, 30,000 free people of color (gens de couleur), and 500,000 black slaves (most were born in Africa). There were also a group of escaped slaves (maroons).800 gens de couleurs were sent to fight in the American Revolution. After the French Revolution erupted whites in Haiti wanted to govern themselves (but did not want to give equality to the gens de couleur). This led to a civil war between these two groups.The slaves, led by Toussaint Louverture, then revolted in August of 1791. Napoleon sent troops but ultimately they lost.In 1804 Haiti declared independence and became the first republic that abolished slavery.
The next few images view the Haitian Revolution from two different perspectives: The British and the French.
Can you detect which representations are British and which are French?
Compare these representations of Haiti.http://scholar.library.miami.edu/slaves/representations/Individual_art_essays/patricia_essay.htm
Depictions of Toussaint Louverturehttp://scholar.library.miami.edu/slaves/representations/Individual_art_essays/patricia_essay.htm
Simon BolivarKnown as The Liberator was a CreoleStudied Rousseaus republican ideals as well as Montesquieu1810 led independence movements in Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, and Ecuador (Gran Colombia). Regional differences led to the breakup of this nationPromised to fight for the rights of mixed race Latin Americans (Ultimately this promise is abandoned in general by future leaders)
Jose de San MartinCreoleHad extensive military service from serving in the Spanish army1814- led independence movements in Argentina, Chile, and PeruHe joined forces with Bolivar and by the 1820s much of Latin America was independenthttp://pachami.com/English/sanmartin1E.htm
PeninsularesCreolesMestizosMulattoesAfrican Slaves & Native AmericansIf you were a Criollo (creole), would you support Gran Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexican Independence? Why/ Why not?The Creole Dillema
http://www.mexonline.com/person1.htmHidalgos Call for Mexican IndependenceThe Grito de Dolores took place on September 16, 1810 Father Hidalgo rang the Church bell and called on native Mexicans to rise up against the local Spaniards (gachopines)A slaughter of Spaniards followedHidalgo was arrested and executedHis struggle was continued by Father Jose Morelos who was also executed by the SpaniardsEvery year on September 16 Mexicans shout the Grito in honor of Hidalgo
The Road to Mexican IndependenceDispute between liberals (i.e. followers of Fathers Hidalgo and Morelos) and Creole conservativesLiberals wanted to give equal rights to all and distribute hacienda lands to Native Americans and Mestizos. Creoles opposed thisLieutenant Agustin Iturbide, a conservative, won support by offering equal rights to allHis combined army defeated the Spaniards (1821)Iturbide crowned himself Emperor. He was ousted and exiled in less than a yearhttp://www.mapquest.com/atlas/main.adp?region=mexico
Effects of Independence in Latin AmericaIndependence did not include freedom for many.Slavery continued to exist.There was no emergence of a significant middle class, many peasants worked on huge plantations owned by a few wealthy landowners.Emergence of Caudillos.The Catholic Church protected the status quo because it held a lot of land in Latin AmericaLatin American countries continued to participate in European mercantilism and exported a few specialized cash crops.There were some exceptions to this: Chile diversified its economy, and Brazil and Argentina saw a growing middle class. But for most countries in Latin America it would be more than 100 years until real reforms took place.
Latin American Revolutions of Early 1800sCountry Mother Country Population Freedom Yrs of Revolution What happens to this Area Ultimately FighterCaribbeanHaiti -
South AmericaNorthern (Venezuela, etc.)