Revived best features of medieval Catholicism and adjusted them Revival of mysticism – St. Theresa of Avila Revival of monasticism – old and new orders.
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The Catholic or Counter Reformation
The Catholic or Counter ReformationRevived best features of medieval Catholicism and adjusted themRevival of mysticism St. Theresa of AvilaRevival of monasticism old and new orders Capuchins Theatines Ursulines Revival of the OldThe Society of JesusJesuits became the chief instrument of the Catholic ReformationFounded by Ignatius of LoyolaSpanish noblemanInjured in battle; experienced religious torment; submitted his will to the will of the Church unlike LutherSoldier of God The Spiritual Exercises
Society of Jesus recognized by papal bull in 1540
Order grounded on 4 principles: 1) Absolute obedience to papacy 2) Strict hierarchical order for the Society 3) Use of education to achieve goals 4) Dedication to engage in conflict for God1) Established highly disciplined schools education crucial to combating Protestantism2) Propagation of the Catholic faith among non-Christians Francis Xavier in the East Matteo Ricci in China3) Fight Protestantism Successful in parts of Germany and eastern Europe Major Activities of the JesuitsProtestant Reformation jolted the papacyPope Paul III appointed reform cardinals: Contarini and Caraffa appointed reform committee to study churchColloguy in Regensburg 1541Pope Paul IV (Cardinal Caraffa) increased power of Inquisition created index of Forbidden BooksRevived PapacyCalled by Pope Paul IIIThree major sessions 1545 1563Final doctrine reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings 1) Scripture and tradition affirmed as equal authorities in religious matters 2) Both faith and good works necessary for salvation 3) Seven sacraments confirmed 4) Transubstantiation confirmed 5) Clerical celibacy confirmed 6) Purgatory and indulgences confirmed; but hawking forbiddenThe Council of Trent