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Review of intermodal freight transportationin humanitarian logistics
Mustafa Alp Ertem1 & Melike bilir1 & Ayenur ahin Arslan2
Received: 19 March 2016 /Accepted: 20 January 2017 /Published online: 2 February 2017# The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at SpringerLink.com
AbstractPurpose Using intermodal transportation is vital for the deliv-ery of relief supplies when single mode alternative becomesunusable or infeasible. The objective of this paper is to inves-tigate the use of intermodal freight transportation in humani-tarian logistics.Methods This paper first identifies the differences betweenmultimodal and intermodal transportation. Then, we examinethe use of each transportation mode for specific disaster typesand phases. When combinations of transportation modes (i.e.air, road, rail and sea) for intermodal transportation are con-sidered together with different disaster types (e.g. earthquake,flood and famine), the feasible decision space becomes ratherlarge. To explore this decision space, we have reviewed theacademic and practitioner studies as well as severalnon-governmental organizations (NGO) disaster archives.Results From this exploration, we developed a transportationmode/disaster-type combination matrix and a transportationmode/disaster-phase combination matrix. We then discuss ex-amples of real life usage of intermodal transportation in hu-manitarian logistics and share our findings and analyses. Of
369 academic humanitarian logistics articles, only 20 havementioned transportation mode changes. In practitioner stud-ies, we found a decreasing percentage of the usage of slowermodes (e.g. sea and rail) in the disaster response phase overtime. We were not able to find a significant relationship be-tween a specific transportation mode and a specificdisaster-type or -phase. Road transportation seems to covermost of the disaster operations regardless of the disaster-typeor -phase.Conclusions We can conclude that intermodality and thetransportation unit concept is not being studied extensivelyin humanitarian logistics. Most of the relief organizations donot share transported freight amounts in their reports and thosethat do share transported freight amounts in their reports donot explicitly mention mode changes. We discuss the enablersof and obstacles to the effective use of intermodal transporta-tion in humanitarian logistics and propose future research di-rections. We anticipate that intermodal transportation in hu-manitarian logistics will garner greater research attention andincreased utilization in coming years.
Keywords Humanitarian logistics . OR in disaster relief .
Literature review . Freight transportation
The number of natural and man-made disasters has been in-creasing in recent years and these disasters have affectedmanypeople. To prevent the loss of lives and help the victims of adisaster, response times must be minimized. Disaster opera-tions management can be divided into four phases: mitigation,preparedness, response and recovery . In the mitigationphase, a risk analysis of the settlements and public educationis performed. Resource planning and the advance purchase of
* Mustafa Alp Ertemalpertem@gmail.com
Ayenur ahin Arslanaysenursahinarslan@gmail.com
1 Department of Industrial Engineering, ankaya University,Yukaryurtu Mahallesi, Mimar Sinan Cad. No: 4,06790 Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey
2 Tdemsa Production Planning Department, KadiburhanettinMahallesi Fabrika Cad. No: 12, 58059 Sivas, Turkey
Eur. Transp. Res. Rev. (2017) 9: 10DOI 10.1007/s12544-017-0226-z
supplies is carried out in the preparedness phase. The responsephase includes activities related to needs assessment, resourcemobilization and the transportation of relief aids. Finally, therecovery phase entails the removal of all debris and rebuildingessential infrastructure. After the onset of any disaster, thecurrent situation is assessed, and then resources are mobilizedfor transport to the disaster area. If required, relief aid is alsoprocured and transportation operations are managed. Logisticsoperations are important in the humanitarian relief chain andaccount for around 80% of all disaster relief activities .
Because of the critical importance of speed, especially inthe response phase, many alternatives should be considered todeliver relief items as quickly as possible within the availablebudget and resources. This can be accomplished by the utili-zation of various transportation modes (i.e. road, rail, air andwater), which can increase the range of options for the deci-sion maker. Moreover, using alternative transportation modesdepending on the characteristics of the disaster might be theonly option to reach affected people because of the extent ofdamage to the transportation infrastructure.
Threemain types of transportation systems are defined in theutilization of multiple transportation modes. Multimodaltransportation refers to passenger or freight transportation froman origin to a destination using two or more transportationmodes. Intermodal transportation is a type of multimodalfreight transportation that uses an intermodal transport unit(ITU) (e.g. container) with no handling of the goods themselvesbetween mode changes. Combined transportation is a type ofmultimodal freight transportation that excludes air transport andwhere most the trip occurs by rail or on waterways with onlythe initial and final legs of the trip occurring on road. The readeris referred to  for a compilation of these definitions. It shouldalso be noted here that air and sea transport do not lend them-selves to unimodal (i.e. single-mode) transportation of freight.Air and sea transport are almost always coupled with eitherrail/road transport or both. On the other hand, rail and roadtransport could be used as unimodal and possibly interchange-ably. Choice between rail and road transport depends mostly oneconomic matters and the availability of the required infrastruc-ture (i.e. rail ramp, crane, etc.) and qualified human resource atthe transhipment hubs.
Humanitarian relief activities are vital, and even a verysmall improvement in the process can yield great impacts onpeoples lives. Thats why academicians and practitioners arecontinuously in search of new methods to improve these ac-tivities, especially in recent years due to the increasing numberof massive disasters. Investigating alternative ways to trans-port relief supplies usingmultiple modes and decreasing trans-portation times by utilizing a transportation unit can yieldremarkable results for the beneficiaries. On the other hand,considering that logistics systems are highly dependent onhuman effort (e.g. drivers, carriers, warehouse employees,etc.) and the disaster environment is subject to change in
subsequent phases of disaster management, transportation op-erations are inherently difficult to coordinate. If not coordinat-edwisely, the expected advantages of utilizingmultiple modesmay not be obtained. Thus, investigating the use of intermodalfreight transportation in humanitarian logistics, in both re-search and practice, is the main objective of this study.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: In the secondsection, we explain our methodology used to find academicstudies and practical usage examples, as well as our strategyfor choosing those to investigate. In section 3, we present ouranalyses of studies in emergency management, humanitarianlogistics and disaster relief distribution, in particular. We thendiscuss the utilization of multiple modes both in academicresearch and real life disasters. In section 4, we analyse ourfindings and suggest future research directions. Finally, wedraw our conclusions in section 5.
2 Literature review methodology
In this section, we present our methodologies for identifyingrelevant studies, for selecting some for further examinationand for analysing the features of the relevant studies. We con-sidered both academic and practitioner studies, but the ap-proaches we used to investigate each type differed in severalways.
2.1 Academic studies
While the transportation aspect of disaster operations manage-ment is the focus of this paper, it is important to have anoverall perspective of the main topics in this field.We selectedthe seven literature review studies most related to disasteroperations management, humanitarian logistics and transpor-tation in humanitarian logistics, including those by Altay andGreen , Galindo and Batta , Caunhye et al. ,Natarajarathinam et al. , Apte , Anaya-Arenas et al. and de la Torre et al. .
Altay and Green  conducted a survey of literature pub-lished between 1980 and 2004 that focused on the use ofoperations research in emergency management. Studies wereanalysed with respect to the phases and disaster types, sugges-tions were made for future research in some of these papersand explanations were given regarding problems in emergen-cy management. Inspired by the work of Altay and Green ,Galindo and Batta  continued their analysis by consideringarticles published between 2005 and 2010, to determinewhether any of the gaps identified by Altay and Green had been addressed in new research efforts. Galindo andBatta  compared the new studies with those investigatedby Altay and Green , with respect to their methodology,disaster phase and type. Future research directions were alsoupdated in Galindo and Batta . Similarly, Caunhye et al. 
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studied the role of optimization models in emergency man-agement by classifying the literature into two main catego-riesfa