research methods. naturalistic observations advantages advantages disadvantages disadvantages
Post on 05-Jan-2016
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Experimental MethodAdvantagesCan determine cause (independent variable) and effect (dependent variable) Disadvantages
The Scientific Method- Seven Steps in an ExperimentASK Question & Form a HypothesisExample: Does Ritalin help children with ADHD?Hypothesis- Ritalin does help reduce negative classroom behaviors.
Scientific Method Cont.2. Identify the treatments & define termsIndependent variable (IV)-Dependent variable (DV)-Extraneous/Con-founding Variables-Placebo-
Example:IV- amount of RitalinDV- negative classroom behaviors
Scientific Method Cont.3. Choose Subjectsrandom selection-
4. Assign Subjects Randomly to GroupsExperimental Group-
Scientific Method Cont.5. ManipulateSingle-Blind, Double-Blind, or No-Blind?Pros of Double-Blind- reduces experimenter bias
Scientific Method Cont.6. Measure- actually conduct the experiment7. Analyze the results using statistics
Example: ADHD children given placebo showed 9.8 negative behaviors/30min. ADHD children given ritalin showed 4.8 negative behaviors/30min.
CorrelationsSurveys, Natural Observations, & Case-studies can determine correlationsCorrelation indicates a relationship between variablesEx: Smoking & Cancer, High School GPA & College GPA, Moon & Odd Behavior
Positive v. Negative CorrelationsPositive- variables move in same direction (both increase or decrease)
Negative- variables move in opposite direction
Identify the variables and if the correlation is positive or negativeWhen it is hot outside more ice cream is sold.A group of over weight individuals noticed that the more they went to the gym, their weight decreased.The more a person flosses the fewer cavities they have.Tall people tend to have larger shoe sizes.
Correlation Coefficentnumber that indicated the STRENGTH of the relationship between two variablesIt is a number between (+1.0) and (-1.0)The closer the number to (+1) or (-1) the stronger the correlation0= no correlation
Code of Ethics
The APA code of ethics for psychologists to follow when doing research or counseling
Ethical GuidelinesSigned Consent & volunteersConfidentiality Experiments are not approved unless any potentially damaging effects can be eliminated or counteractedDebriefing- explaining the purpose and method of the experiment asking the subjects their feelings about participatingRights of animals