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  • RES - Status Quo, Potential and Prospects

    Vasileios Tsolakidis, CRES

    20 June 2017, Thessaloniki

  • Greek energy sector

    2

    Source: Eurostat (2017)

  • RES targets

    Directive 2009/28/EC Gross final energy consumption in 2020: 18%

    Law 3851/2010

    Gross final energy consumption in 2020 (RES-total): 20%

    Gross electricity consumption in 2020 (RES-E): at least 40%

    Final energy consumption for heating and cooling in 2020 (RES-H&C): at least 20%

    Final energy consumption for transport in 2020 (RES-T): at least 10%

    3

  • Progress on the fulfilment of REDs targets

    2011 2012 2013 2014

    RES-H&C 20.23% 24.43% 26.47% 26.85%

    RES-E 13.82% 16.48% 21.24% 21.92%

    RES-T 0.74% 1.06% 1.04% 1.37%

    Overall RES share 11.03% 13.83% 14.99% 15.32%

    Achievement of the targets for RES penetration in heating and cooling.

    Considerable progress on the target for RES penetration in electricity and GFEC.

    Deviation from the target for RES penetration in transport.

    Source: 3rd Progress Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources in Greece submitted in 2016.

    4

  • RES installed capacity & electricity production

    5

  • Legislative framework and policy instruments

    L.3468/2006 L.3851/2010 L.4001/2011 L.4062/2012 L.4254/2014 L.4414/2016

    FiT FiPPV program on

    rooftopsNet-metering

    Investment Law & other

    programs

    Energy communities

    Legislative framework

    Policy instruments

    6

  • FiP

    The Feed-in-Premium scheme was introduced from 01.01.2016 according to the foreseen requirements and provisions of the EC State Aid Guidelines for Environmental Protection and Energy 2014-2020.

    Exemptions to specific categories giving the opportunity to receive the granted aid in the form of FiT.

    RES plants should be subjected to specific obligations based on their direct participation in the electricity market providing incentives in order to optimize their hourly generation forecasts during the transitory period.

    Adoption of competitive bidding processes for granting the relevant RES operating aid from 01.01.2017.

    The first round of a competitive bidding process equal to at minimum 5% of the new installed RES capacity in the period 2015-2016 was conducted within 2016.

    7

  • Installed PV System Capacity in Greece

    1.2 2.3 11.636.5

    150

    425.9

    912

    1042.5

    16.95 10.3 5 20

    0

    100

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    2017 (

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    Yearly Installed Capacity Total Installed Capacity

    PV systems - Current status

    Explosive introduction of grid connected PV systems since 2010 due to very attractive Feed in Tariffs.

    PV penetration has reached the 2020 NREAP goal since 2014.

    Since 2014 PV energy annual contribution to consumption more than 7%. Number 2 worldwide.

    ~50.000 PV systems on buildings under 10 kWpprogramme launched since June 2009.

    Net Metering scheme introduced in 2015 is becoming more profitable than FiT for PV systems on buildings (Virtual Power Metering from 2017 for Public interest entities and farmers). 8

  • From FiT to FiP and to tenders

    Pilot tender for 40 MWp of solar PV end of 2016. Two system categories:

    Projects above 1 MWp: bidding prices were in the range of 79.97 to 88.00/MWh

    Projects less than 1 MWp: 94,97 /MWh to 104 /MWh

    Current LCOE for grid-connected Medium Voltage systems under 6 Euro cents/kWh

    PV systems - Future prospects

    PV is a mature technology with step by step improvements.

    System prices will continue to decrease. Retail small grid-connected PV system price below 1 Euro/Wp soon after 2020.

    Grid integration issues due to solar output variability may occur in high penetration cases but distributed generation, storage and demand flexibility are developing solutions

    Storage coupled with large systems and building self consumption.

    Smart metering and smart grids.

    Short-term path Long-term path

    9

  • Wind energy - Current status

    New wind power capacity installed in 2016 was 239 MW, reaching a cumulative of 2374 MW

    Wind power penetration rate in electrical energy production for 2016 was 7.4%

    Typical annual installation rate is 100-150 MW

    The average size of wind turbines installed in 2016 is 2.5 MW

    Grid integration issues due to weak grid infrastructure are already seen especially in isolated island grids, resulting in limitations to the allowable installed capacity and wind power curtailments in winter.

    10

  • From FiT to FiP and to tenders

    Waiting and expectations for the implementation of

    the FiP support scheme for wind energy production.

    Current activity related to projects still assigned to Feed in tariff under the previous scheme.

    Wind energy - Future prospects

    Wind is a mature technology and will provide significant share of RES energy in the future.

    Electricity grid strengthening and interconnections of islands in the Aegean Sea with mainland can substantially increase the wind energy share in electricity production, improving on the same time system stability.

    Offshore wind energy applications can further increase wind energy capacity after floating wind turbine foundations become mature.

    Short-term path Long-term path

    11

  • Biogas - Current status

    Theoretical potential:

    350 MWe installed capacity produced from biomass (animal wastes and food industrial wastes)

    100 MWe from agricultural wastes

    100 MWe from the degradable part of the municipal wastes

    Actual situation:

    57 MWe installed capacity from biogas - 31 plants of total

    11.1 MWe total capacity using agro-industrial residues - 18 plants of 250-500kW each

    The most prevailing technology is anaerobic digestion12

  • Biogas - Future prospects

    Technological prospects: 40 MWe

    Identified barriers

    Fuel procurement & material optimization

    Legislation - Gate fee

    Limited funding opportunities

    Absence of efficient supply chains

    Technological prospects

    Biomethane production for injection to NG grid and CNG

    Identified barriers

    Lack of biomethane prices

    Competitiveness with natural gas

    Short-term path Long-term path

    13

  • Solid biomass for CHP - Current status

    Theoretical potential:

    Additional 1,746 GWh still unexploited with potential of CO2 mitigation at approximately 460,000 tons.

    Main feedstocks: straw, olive pruning and olive kernels, cotton stalks, wood residues

    Actual situation:

    Consumption of 1,604.94 GWh mainly in food and wood industry for space and process heat

    2 MWe from biomass - 7 plants in total

    Domestically produced biomass boilers

    The most prevailing technology is combustion 14

  • Solid biomass for CHP - Future prospects

    Technological prospects

    Small district heating plants, Domestic heating (commerce and service buildings, public sector)

    Combustion, and co-combustion with lignite, in PPC units - Gasification

    Identified barriers

    Challenging logistics/service provision

    High costs for biomass procurement and infrastructure

    Lack of economies of scale

    Challenging licensing procedure and lack of a set heat price

    Absence of effective supply chains

    Short and longer term path

    15

  • Biofuels - Current status

    Actual situation:

    Consumption of 132,000 kL - 23% certified

    16 biodiesel producing companies (125,600 kL), 7 importers (6,400 kL)

    Raw material: oil seeds (73%) mainly sunflower, used cooking oils (23%) and cootton seed (7%)

    Around 100,000 hectares with oil crops, 85% grown with sunflower.

    The only biofuel produced is biodiesel, 1st generation

    16

  • Biofuels - Future prospects

    Technological prospects

    Advanced biofuels

    Identified barriers

    Technologies still not mature

    High investment costs

    Limited funding opportunities

    Recommendations

    R&D efforts towards more efficient technologies

    Short and longer term path

    17

  • Geothermal Power Generation - Current status

    Geothermal power generation potential of Greece: ~ 2000 MWe

    None installed yet

    Global geothermal power plants:

    high enthalpy (150 - 400 C) geothermal resources

    2 - 4 km depth

    condensing (usu. 20 - 100 MWe units) and/or binary plants (usu. 1 - 10 MWe units)

    base load18

  • Geothermal Power Generation - Future prospects

    Technological prospects

    Binary plants

    Identified barriers

    Investing environment

    Interconnection to power grid

    Delays in the development of existing

    concessions

    Technological prospects

    Condensing plants

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Identified barriers

    High initial costs

    Geological risk (introduction of a geological

    risk