republican ascendancy: the jefferson and madison
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DESCRIPTIONChapter 7. REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSON and MADISON . The “Revolution of 1800” . Burr and Jefferson tie in the election of 1800 Alexander Hamilton supports Jefferson Jefferson, Republican, takes office with Burr as VP Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
CHAPTER 8 JEFFERSONIAN ASCENDANCY: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GOVERNMENT
REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSON and MADISON Chapter 7
The Revolution of 1800 Burr and Jefferson tie in the election of 1800Alexander Hamilton supports Jefferson Jefferson, Republican, takes office with Burr as VP Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another Inaugural address: We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.
Jefferson Dismantles Federalist Policies Abolished all internal taxes (whiskey tax) Reduced government spending Cut federal debt almost in half Reduced the size of the army and navy 50% Retired most of the navys warships (Critics claimed he left the nation defenseless) He tried removed the midnight appointees-judges appointed by Adams
6QuestionJust how DEMOCRATIC was Jefferson? Trouble with the Barbary States
Conflict With the Barbary StatesNorth African states (Pasha of Tripoli) demanded tribute from ships sailing in MediterraneanJefferson dispatched U.S. fleet to negotiate through the mouth of a cannonU.S. ends up paying $60,000 for the release of U.S. sailors
10North America in 1800
Attack on the Judges: Marbury v. MadisonJefferson tried to deny Federalist Marbury his judgeship.Marbury took his case to the Supreme Court which ruled the court had no authority to order James Madison to deliver the commission. They ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. ***Under Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison (1803) the ruling established the Supreme Courts right of judicial review of federal legislation and executive action. 13****Marbury v. Madison Judicial Review Established one of the most important principles of American constitutional law: The right of judicial review.. The Supreme Court held that the Court itself has the final say on the meaning of the Constitution (interpretation and application) as well as the power to nullify an act of Congress. Attack on the Judges: Impeachments1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism and insanityRepublicans began to fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary. Jefferson made the situation worse by seeking to impeach Federalist Supreme Court Justice Samuel ChaseThe Republican Senate refused to convict Chase. No attempt has been made since to restructure the court through impeachment. 14The Louisiana Purchase
Westward: The Course of Empire Intense migration to West after 1790New States included Kentucky--1792Tennessee--1796Ohio1803***Water transportation is essential to westward expansion and New Orleans connected these markets to the world 2The Louisiana Purchase1801--France bought Louisiana from Spain1803--Jefferson sent diplomats to France to buy New OrleansNapoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million (4 cents an acre) The Constitution is vague on Congressional authority to purchase LA ****Jefferson abandons his position of a strict interpretation of the Constitution to purchase LA territory 7
A Proclamation to the People of New Orleans, 1803 (In three languages) The Louisiana Purchase (2)Louisiana inhabitants were French & SpanishJefferson denies them self-rule=Taxation without representation Louisiana was governed from WashingtonThis was another Jeffersonian departure from RepublicanismThe boundaries of the territory are not clear. 9http://www.history.com/topics/meriwether-lewis/videos#louisiana-purchase-doubles-size-of-americaLA Purchase: Is It Constitutional? http://www.history.com/shows/the-presidents/videos/jefferson-expands-executive-power#jefferson-expands-executive-powerThe Lewis and Clark ExpeditionLewis and Clark Expedition was commissioned prior to purchase of LouisianaExpedition left St. Louis May 1804 and returned in 1806.They were gone for 21/2 years and covered 8,000 miles. Sacagawea, Shoshone Indian guide Both men agreed the area beyond the Missourithough rich in resources--was not fit for settlement.
8Meriweather Lewis considered the expedition a failure. There was no river system connecting the interior of the U.S. to the west coast. Inn other words, a Northwest Passage to China (C Columbus had been seeking) The area was dry and not suitable for farming and many of the Natives were hostile to intruders.
Meriweather Lewis died in a mysterious incident at a tavern on the Natchez Trace murder or suicide? The Louisiana Purchase and the Route of Lewis and Clark
Murder and Conspiracy: The Curious Career of Aaron Burr Vice-President Aaron Burr breaks with Jefferson1804--Burr seeks Federalist support in 1804 New York governors race Alexander Hamilton blocks Burrs effortsBurr kills Hamilton in a duel16The Burr ConspiracyBurr fled to the west after Hamilton duelSome believed Burr planned to invade Spanish territory and convince western states to secede from the union. Burr was arrested and tried for treasonJohn Marshall acquitted on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence He fled to England but returned years later to live as an outcast in the U.S. The wickedest man alive. 17Video on Burr Duel Founding Brothers Embarrassments Overseas1803--England and France resumed war (Napoleonic Wars) American ships were subject to seizure: Between 1803 and 1807, the British seized 500 American ships and France seized 300.Impressments=seizing U.S. sailors for service in English navy (Chesapeake-Leopard Incident) Jefferson refused to declare war. Instead, he cut off trade with France and England instead. Embargo Act of 1807-Jeffersons alternative to war
19Napoleon Bonapartewho Jefferson referred to as the Great Beast had gone to war once again against the British. France blockaded the British Isles. The British responded with a counter blockade and once again the American merchant ships were caught in the middle.
In just a 4 year period, the British seized 500 American ships the French seized 300
The tensions between the Americans and the British came to a head in 1807 when the British frigate Leopard stopped the Americans frigate Chesapeake to demand the return of British deserters rumored to be among the American crew. The Chesapeake, which was not prepared for battle, refused the British demandbelieving the British would not resort to force. But they did. The Leopard opened fire on the Chesapeake killing 3 Americans and wounding 18. The British then boarded the ship and hauled off 4 sailors three of them American citizens.
The Chesapeake incident created a firestorm of outrage even greater than the XYZ Affair but Jefferson had no fleet at hand (thanks to his own policies) to take on the greatest naval power in the world. Instead he broke off trade with BOTH France and Britain thinking this would teach them a lesson. The embargo sent the US economy into a downward spiral.
Embargo Act (1807) Divided the NationEmbargo Act prohibited American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign port.Embargo crippled the American economy. American exports dropped from $108 million in 1807 to $22 million. Imports dropped from $138 million to $57 million. Merchants declared bankruptcy, jobs were lost, banks closed Jefferson stopped enforcing the embargo 20Jefferson thought the French and the British were so dependent on American agricultural products that they would both cave in to American demands for freedom of the seas. But it didnt quite work out that way. The Embargo Act of 1807 nearly crippled the U.S. economy and by 1808 Jefferson had stopped trying to enforce it. GORDON WOOD EMPIRE OF LIBERTYVIDEO NOTES GORDON WOOD LECTURE: EMPIRE OF LIBERTY (1790-1820) The population doubled every 20 yearsAmericans moved westward rapidly leading to disputes over land and relocation and conflict with Native Americans Westward movement led to the creation of new states and a shift in political power from the east to the western region Religious revivals sweep the nation (Second Great Awakening) and new religious groups are organizedMethodists, Baptists, Mormons, etc.
Gordon Wood VideoThe national economy grows rapidly and Americans seize opportunities for economic and social gains very ambitious! Crime rate spikedThree wrong assumptions of the founding generation: 1. They could control westward expansion 2. They could deal with the Indians in a humane manner 3. Slavery would die a natural death
JAMES MADISONTHE MADISON ADMINISTRATION James Madison Elected President
# 4, James MadisonPart of the Virginia Dynasty and founding generation Father of the Constitution Author of the Federalist PapersSupporter of the Bill of Rights Dem-Republican along with Jefferson Historical Context: Madison Administration Westward expansion, land disputes Growing population Religious revivalism Second Great Awakening Great Britain and France were at war (Napoleonic Wars) US ships were caught between the warring nations Embargo Act had damaged the US economy Indian unrest in the Northeast and the South Importation of slaves ended in 1808 A New Administration Goes to War: Mr. Madisons War
1808--James Madison was elected President and Britain and France were at war 1809--Embargo was repealed in favor of Non-Intercourse Act-reopens trade with all nations EXCEPT Britain and France Macons Bill No. 2-U.S. resumed trade with France and Britain as long as both allowed unrestricted trade
21Causes of the War of 1812: US vs. Great Britain 1. Americans resented British occupation of forts in the Northwest where they supplied Indians in attacks against American settlers 2. British seizure of American ships and impressment of American citizens3. As the nation moved westward, the region gained political power in Congress. War Hawks from the western states supported war with Britain=Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun 4.