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1 Bachelor of Engineering / Science Electronic Engineering Module Laboratory Reports Bachelor of Engineering / Science in Electronic Engineering Data Structures and Algorithms Lee Siang Wei Semester 1 Academic Year 2014/15 Department of Engineering Technology School of Engineering Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland.

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  • 1

    Bachelor of Engineering / Science

    Electronic Engineering

    Module Laboratory Reports

    Bachelor of Engineering / Science

    in Electronic Engineering

    Data Structures and Algorithms

    Lee Siang Wei

    Semester 1

    Academic Year 2014/15

    Department of Engineering Technology

    School of Engineering

    Waterford Institute of Technology,


  • 2

    Table of contents


    What is mbed 3

    Scope of project 4


    Details of main components 5-6

    Block diagram 7

    Wiring diagram 7-8

    Description 8


    Overview 9-11

    Implementation & Testing

    Implementation step by step guides 12-14

    Testing & Results 15-17

    Problems Encountered 18

    Future Recommendations 18

    References 18

    Appendices 19-21

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    What is mbed?

    mbed is a platform for developing smart devices that are based on 32-bit ARM

    Cortex-M microcontrollers. It is designed to provide a highly productive solution for

    rapid prototyping and product development, with a focus on connected Internet of

    Things devices.

    It is a project developed by ARM, its technology partners and a community of core

    developers, and it is used by tens of thousands of professional developers to create

    intelligent products that take advantage of the power of modern microcontrollers and

    connectivity. The mbed microcontroller was the first hardware used to bootstrap the

    mbed platform, used for creating smart devices based on ARM Cortex-M


    The mbed software development kit (SDK) provides the mbed C/C++ software

    platform and tools for creating microcontroller firmware that runs on smart devices. It

    consists of the core libraries that provide the microcontroller peripheral drivers,

    networking, RTOS and runtime environment, build tools and test and debug scripts. A

    components database provides driver libraries for components and services that can

    be connected to the microcontrollers to build a final product.

    The mbed hardware development kit (HDK) provides the recipes to build custom

    hardware for devices that support the mbed SDK. This consists of interface firmware

    and schematics of the microcontroller subsystems that can be used to easily create

    development boards, OEM modules and re-programmable/hackable products suitable

    for production and that can take advantage of the mbed software platform and

    development tools. There are various hardware platforms based on the HDK available,

    with the first platform being the original mbed Microcontroller board used to

    bootstrap the project.

    The mbed platform now supports different ARM Cortex-M hardware though porting

    of the mbed SDK to support new microcontrollers, and use of the mbed HDK to

    create custom boards that support the software platform.

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    Scope of project

    The scope of this project is that to capture a photo for a racing car when the sensor

    detects the motion of itself before reaching the final line. The photo will then save

    into a SD memory card.

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    Details of main components

    In the construction of this project, it consists of some of the main components: mbed

    LPC1768, PIR Motion Sensor, LS-Y201 Camera and Breakout Board for microSD.

    The mbed Microcontroller (more precisely mbed NXP LPC17680) is based around an

    NXP microcontroller, which has an ARM Cortex M3 core, running at 96 MHz, with

    512 KB flash, 64 KB RAM, as well as several interfaces including Ethernet, USB

    Device, CAN, SPI, IC and other I/O. It is the most important part of this project as it

    control all the activities of the project.

    For LinkSprite JPEG color / infrared camera, it is used to capture and output JPEG

    images through UART, making it easy to integrate into an existing design. It can

    capture high resolution pictures using the serial port.

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    PIR motion sensor with Grove compatible interface allows to sense motion, usually

    human movement in its range. Simply connect it to Grove - Base shield and program

    it, when anyone moves in its detecting range, the sensor will output HIGH on its SIG

    pin and then activate the capture function of camera. Otherwise, it will output LOW.

    It is used to detect the motion of people.

    Breakout board for the microSD socket compatible with the SPI interface found on

    any SD card, this tiny form factor was created for any media storage such as music

    and pictures.

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    Block diagram

    In this project, the modular design is employed. The block diagram of this project is

    shown below:

    The PIR Motion Sensor acts as input as it detect the any tiny movement of things so

    that it can send the signal to the main brain mbed LPC1768. Therefore the LPC 1768

    will collect and progress the data in order to determine whether to activated the

    infrared camera to take picture and then save the picture into microSD or not.

    Wiring Diagram

    The schematic diagram for this project without SD breakout board is shown above.

    There are total 5 pins of LPC 1768 used in this project, pin VOUT, pin GND, pin 13,




    mbed LPC1768


    LinkSprite JPEG

    color / infrared


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    14 and 21. The VOUT is the positive side of power supply which supply the voltage

    to each of the components. On the other side, the GND is ground that all the ground

    of components must be connected to it. Pin 13 is TXD which is connected to the RXD

    of the LS-Y201 Camera while pin 14 is RXD that connected to the TXD of the LS-

    Y201 Camera. Pin 21 is the receiver signal where it connected with the pin OUT of

    PIR Motion Sensor. With SD breakout board, the connection pins is shown as below:

    SD Breakout Board Mbed

    RSV -

    CS Pin 8

    DI Pin 5

    VDD Pin 40 (VOUT)

    CLK Pin 7

    VSS Pin 0 (GND)

    DO Pin 6

    RSV, S1 & S2 -


    Each of the components gets their power supply from LPC 1768 to perform their

    function as well. Therefore each of the positive side and negative side of voltage of

    the components has to connect with positive and negative of LPC 1768

    simultaneously. For the LS-Y201 Camera, pin TXD work as transmitting data out to

    LPC 1768 and pin RXD is work as receiving data from LPC 1768. When the motion

    is detected, the PIR Motion Sensor will send a high signal to pin 21, the LPC 1768

    will collect the signal and process it. After processing, it will send a signal from TXD

    of itself to RXD of LS-201 Camera. At this time, the camera will start to take a photo

    and then the data will send back to the RXD of LPC 1768 for memory storage.

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    The software is designed in order to support the effectiveness of the hardware device.

    The software was written in C language, and was written in sections for easy

    debugging and troubleshooting. Each section is tailored to meet the duty that will be

    imposed on the corresponding hardware unit.


    i) Inclusion of library

    First, I have to include the library of mbed.h so that the program can run smoothly

    without any debugging error. This is because I use the platform of mbed to run this

    project. Besides, I have to include the library of Camera_LS_Y201.h and

    SDHCFileSystem.h in order to make me easier to troubleshoot the program if any

    debugging error exist. Of course, you can insert all the codes into the same form too.

    For PIR Motion Sensor, pin 21 defined as pin receiving signal from it, mean that

    when any motion is detected, pin OUT of PIR will send signal to this pin. In addition,

    pin 13 and 14 of LPC 1768 also defined simultanuesly as TXD and RXD in early


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    ii) Definition of SD Card

    USE_SDCARD is a variable that have to defined for memory storage of captured

    images. The codes above explained that 2 condition:

    if SD card is detected, the captured images will automatically save into the

    SD card with name of /sd/photos/IMG_%04d.jpg

    if SD card is not exist, it will save into another local file with name of


    iii) Main program

    Firstly, the camera has to reset as 0 in order to detect the connection of pin TXD and

    RXD whether they both connect to the RXD and TXD of LPC 1768 or not. If the

    condition didnt meet, it will display Reset fail. on the screen and the camera wont

    take any photo as there are no connection between LPC 1768 and LS-Y201 camera.

    Once both the connection are detected, it will display Reset OK. and the program

    will continue run to the next code.

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    As the camera got to take photo once PIR Motion Sensor detects the motion of human

    or stuff, the program have to continue loop without ending. If any motion within the

    range is detected, the if statement will run while if there is no motion detected, the

    while loop will also run so that the program is said to be endless unless there is no

    power supply.

  • 12

    Implementation & Testing

    Implementation step by step guides

    1. Insert the pin LPC 1768, PIR Motion Sensor, and LS-Y201 Camera into the

    circuit breadboard.

    2. Connect the wire for GND and VOUT separately on both left and right side of

    circuit breadboard. (Blue wire indicate GND and White wire indicate VOUT)

    3. Connect the wire for GND, VCC and OUT of PIR Motion Sensor. (pin OUT

    connect with pin 21 of LPC 1768, VCC and GND connect simultaneously

    with VOUT and GND of LPC 1768)

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    4. Connect the wire for GND, VCC and OUT of LS-Y201 Camera. (pin 4

    connect with pin 13 of LPC 1768, pin 3 connect with pin 14 of LPC 1768,

    +5V and GND connect simultaneously with VOUT and GND of LPC 1768)

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    5. Connect the LPC 1768 and whole circuit with micro USB cable to the


    6. Insert the codes into the LPC 1768.

    7. Open the Coolterm software to check result and connection.

  • 15

    Testing & Results

    The images below show that the circuit diagram for this project without SD breakout


    The orange light of PIR Motion Sensor indicates it need some cool down time for

    sensing item.

    When the light dims, PIR motion sensor is ready to sense any movement of item.

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    When connecting the breadboard circuit with the computer, open the CoolTerm to test

    and check the result.

    Click the Connect button to connect the breadboard circuit with computer,

    CoolTerm will display the message that what does the codes written.

    When the PIR motion sensor detect movement, the camera will take the picture and

    CoolTerm will display Captured and then it will start to write the data to the LPC


  • 17

    The writing process will display on CoolTerm from 0% to 100%.

    When the data reached 100%, the camera is ready for another capture of picture. The

    picture taken will save in SD card or local place of Mbed.

  • 18

    Problems Encountered

    In this project, there are some of problems to be solved. The sensor that I used at very

    early stage was infrared sensor, during implementation stage, the sensor cant detect

    any movement and this causes the camera always wait for the sensing to take the

    photo. I took lots of time to troubleshoot the problem and it still no working.

    Therefore, I decided to use PIR Motion Sensor to replace the infrared sensor and the

    whole circuit works as well. Besides, for the coding of SD card, I also please the help

    of my friends, Zhen Jing Heng to identify the problems when the photo cannot save

    into the SD card. All these problems are hard to be identified with its death root

    causes but luckily with the help of some friends and guidance from lecturers, the

    problems are solved.

    Future Recommendations for this project

    As the sensor that using in this project was PIR Motion Sensor, it is very sensitive to

    the motion from 360 degrees within the range of sensing. When there is a little bit of

    movement within the range, it will quickly detected and then send the signal to the

    LPC 1768 for further activities. Besides, it also need some cool down time to ready

    for another detection of motion. Therefore, I recommend that using the infrared sensor

    as it only detect the motion once the motion is cut off.


  • 19


    /** * ============================================================================= * LS-Y201 - Test program. (Version 0.0.2) * ============================================================================= * Copyright (c) 2010-2011 Shinichiro Nakamura (CuBeatSystems) * * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: * * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in * all copies or substantial portions of the Software. * * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN * THE SOFTWARE. * ============================================================================= */ #include "mbed.h" #include "Camera_LS_Y201.h" #include "SDHCFileSystem.h" InterruptIn motion(p21); int motion_detected = 0; void irq_handler(void) { motion_detected = 1; } Camera_LS_Y201 cam1(p13, p14); #define USE_SDCARD 1 #if USE_SDCARD #define FILENAME "/sd/photos/IMG_%04d.jpg" SDFileSystem sd(p5, p6, p7, p8, "sd"); #else #define FILENAME "/local/IMG_%04d.jpg"

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    LocalFileSystem fs("local"); #endif typedef struct work { FILE *fp; } work_t; work_t work; void callback_func(int done, int total, uint8_t *buf, size_t siz) { fwrite(buf, siz, 1, work.fp); static int n = 0; int tmp = done * 100 / total; if (n != tmp) { n = tmp; printf("Writing...: %3d%%\n", n); } } int capture(Camera_LS_Y201 *cam, char *filename) { if (cam->takePicture() != 0) { return -1; } printf("Captured.\n"); work.fp = fopen(filename, "wb"); if (work.fp == NULL) { return -2; } printf("%s\n", filename); if (cam->readJpegFileContent(callback_func) != 0) { fclose(work.fp); return -3; } fclose(work.fp); cam->stopTakingPictures(); return 0; } int main(void) { printf("\n\nCamera module\n");

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    printf("Resetting...\n"); wait(1); if (cam1.reset() == 0) { printf("Reset OK.\n"); } else { printf("Reset fail.\n"); error("Reset fail.\n"); } wait(1); int cnt = 0; motion.rise(&irq_handler); while(1) { if(motion_detected) { cnt++; motion_detected = 0; printf("\n\nCongratulation!!!\n", cnt); char fname[64]; snprintf(fname, sizeof(fname) - 1, FILENAME, cnt); int r = capture(&cam1, fname); if (r == 0) printf("[%04d]:OK\n", cnt); else printf("[%04d]:NG. (code=%d)\n", cnt, r); } } }