renaissance the rebirth of art and culture from antiquity (ancient greece and rome)
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Renaissancethe rebirth of art and culture from antiquity (Ancient Greece and Rome)
Growth of CitiesDescription:As trade revived so did citiesMerchants settled in the old Roman citiesArtisans then followed had the skills to make the items that merchants could sell
Lets review What were medieval towns like? Write down one characteristic of medieval towns. Turn to your partner, and share your characteristic. Write down your partners characteristic. Be prepared to share both!
Medieval TownsSpace:crowded within the wallsstreets were narrowsecond and third story of buildings reached over the streets
Medieval TownsFire:danger was greatbuildings were mostly woodcandles and wood fires were used for light and heat
Medieval TownsPleasantness:not pleasantdirty and smelled from human and animal wastewood fires created air pollution
Medieval TownsManufacturing Center:a variety of crafts were manufactured in the housesex. cloth, metalwork, shoes, and leather goods
Growth of CitiesNew Cities and Towns:founded in northern Europea group of merchants built a settlement near a castle on a trade routethe lord would offer protectionwalls were built to protect itmedieval cities were small
Growth of CitiesBourgeoisie:the merchants and artisans of these cities from the German word burg, which means a walled enclosure
Guildsbusiness associationstwelfth centuryorganized by craftspeopleplayed a leading role in urban economic lifeby the thirteenth century almost every craft had a guild
Italian StatesExamples:larger Italian citiesVenice, Florence, Milan, and Genoawere small compared to Constantinople or Baghdad
Italian StatesEffect:played crucial roles in the Italian politics of the timeprospered from trade with the Byzantine, Islamic, and Mediterranean civilizationsset up trading centers in the east due to the Crusadesexchanged goods with merchants in England and the Netherlands
The Republic of Florencedominated the Tuscany regionin the fourteenth century a wealthy group of merchants controlled the Florentine governmentled a series of successful wars against their neighbors, and established Florence as a major city-state
Stop and Think! Why do you think the Renaissance began in Italian cities, particularly Florence?
Medici FamilyRise of the Medicis:in 1434 Cosimo de Medici took control of FlorenceCosimo then his grandson Lorenzo, dominated Florence when it was the cultural center of ItalyThe Medici family encouraged the development of the arts
The Powerful Medici family of Florence, ItalyCosimo de Medici
Medici FamilyGirolamo Savonarola:late 1440s economy declined because of English and Flemish competition for the cloth marketa Dominican preacher named Girolamo Savonarola condemned the Medicis corruption and excessesmany people followed Savonarolacaused the Medicis to give up control of Florencepeople grew tired of Savonarolas regulationsno gambling, swearing, dancing, painting
Medici FamilyEffect:Savonarola convicted of heresyexecuted in 1498 after criticizing the pope.Medicis returned to power
MachiavelliDescription:authored The Prince one of the most influential works on political power in the Western worldhow to get and keep political power
Niccol Machiavelli, The Prince From this arises the question whether it is better to be loved more than feared, or feared more than loved. The reply is, that one ought to be both feared and loved, but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved, if one of the two has to be wanting. For it may be said of men in general that they are ungrateful, voluble [changeable], dissemblers [liars], anxious to avoid danger, and covetous of gain; as long as you benefit them, they are entirely yours; they offer you their blood, their goods, their life, and their children, as I have before said, when the necessity is remote; but when it approaches, they revolt. And the prince, who has relied solely on their words, without making preparations, is ruined.
How does Machiavelli describe human nature? Summarize his advice for rulers. (What is he telling a prince to do in order to keep power?)
MachiavelliOld Political Thought:previous authors stressed that princes should be ethical and follow Christian principles
MachiavelliMachiavellis Political Thought:argued the princes attitude toward power should be based on understanding that human nature is self-interesteda prince should not act on moral principles but on behalf of the interests of the state
MachiavelliImpact:first to abandon morality as the basis for analyzing political activityinfluenced political leaders who followed
Stop and Think! How do Machiavellis ideas reflect changes from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance?