renaissance & reformation. the beginnings ► renaissance means “rebirth”; begins in italy,...

Download Renaissance & Reformation. The Beginnings ► Renaissance means “rebirth”; begins in Italy, spreads throughout Europe ► Lasted from 1350s-1600 CE ► Centered

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  • Renaissance & Reformation

  • The BeginningsRenaissance means rebirth; begins in Italy, spreads throughout EuropeLasted from 1350s-1600 CECentered around idea of humanism glorification of the works of mankindRenewed interest in classical writings of Greece & RomeValued current life more (less focus on afterlife/religion)Worked to become ideal person (Renaissance man)Humanists open schools to teach related subjectsMore writers begin writing in vernacular instead of Latin; also wrote about daily life/common itemsNiccolo Machiavelli writes The Prince as a guide for politics and ruling

  • Italian RenaissanceItalian Renaissance focus more on painting & sculptingItaly not unified; various city-states have influence3 major cities of Italian Renaissance were Florence, Rome, and VeniceFlorenceIR begins here; city controlled by Medici familyThey invest money into beautifying the city; become patrons to many artistsRomeBecomes center of IR around 1500 CEWealth & classical heritage attracts scholars to cityChurch/Pope finance many projects and works of artVeniceLate home of IRCenter of trade in mid-late 1500s CE; uses wealth to beautify city

  • Donatellob. 1386 d. 1466Known for sculptures in marble & bronzeMost famous work David c.1430Not known for being a humanist or cultured intellectual

  • David

  • Michelangelob. 1475 d. 1564Known for paintings and sculpturesMost famous works were The Sistine Chapel and David

  • The Sistine Chapel

  • Creation of Adam

  • David

  • Leonardo da Vincib. 1452 d. 1519Most well known Renaissance artist considered The Renaissance ManMost famous works were Mona Lisa and The Last SupperKnown for paintings, drawings, sculptures, and inventions

  • Mona Lisa

  • The Last Supper

  • Raphaelb. 1483 d.1520Known for paintings and association with the ChurchMost famous works include many paintings of the Madonna and also Pope Leo X with two Cardinals

  • Madonna dell Granduca

  • Pope Leo X with two Cardinals

  • Northern RenaissanceRenaissance begins to spread to North Europe around 1500 CELarge reason for spread was Gutenberg printing pressAllowed more books to be printedMore people could read and gain from Renaissance ideasDesiderius Erasmus Christian humanist who encouraged study of Greek and HebrewCritical of Catholic church and extravagance of the PopeRenaissance spread to England during War of the Roses (fight for English crown)Thomas More criticized English politics & society, comparing it to an ideal society in UtopiaWilliam Shakespeare was greatest writer of Northern Renaissance

  • Protestant ReformationHumanist ideas led to criticism of Catholic churchPeople call for change in church practicesReformation begun by German monk Martin LutherIdea of justification by faithHe who through faith is righteous shall live (Romans)Luthers ideas conflicted with the ChurchChurch was selling positions AND indulgencesPeople buy indulgences thinking they are purchasing forgivenessLuther preached against sale of indulgences; in 1517 CE writes 95 ThesesNew printing methods used to make numerous copies; sale of indulgences in Germany declines dramaticallyLuther ordered by Pope to recant ideas; Luther refusesPope excommunicates Luther in 1521 CE

  • After excommunication, Luther continues preachingNew church is formed (Lutheran church)Luther translates Bible into German for people to readLutheranism had many similarities to Catholic beliefsFew differences included simplified services & priests were allowed to marry

    Spread of Protestantism1st main area of spread was to SwitzerlandMain reformer was John CalvinSet up theocracy in GenevaBelieved in predestinationVERY strictAnother Protestant group were the AnabaptistsMembers initiated ONLY as adultsFreedom given to make own decision regarding GodAnabaptists are persecuted by Catholics and other Protestants

  • Spread (cont.)Ideas of Protestantism made its way to England in early 1500sHenry VIII wanted male heir to throne; wife Catherine could not give him a sonHenry also lusts after young lady Anne BoleynHenry decides to ask church for annulment or divorceCatholic church says noHenry VIII decides to break with Catholic church; Church of England started (Anglican Church) w/ Henry as headAnne unable to produce a son; Henry divorces her (and has her beheaded), has son (Edward VI) with 3rd wifeSeveral years of conflict between Catholics & Protestants in England (including Henrys daughters Mary & Elizabeth)England settles on Protestantism with Elizabeth

  • Catholic Reform (Counter-Reformation)Catholic Church decides to make changes over threat of ProtestantismPope Paul III had cardinals & church authorities give a report on needs for changeReport blamed corruption of high officialsReport agreed that changes would bring Protestants back to the faith1542 Church begins InquisitionPope gave full power to church-based courtPurpose was to purge church of hereticsCouncil of Trent met to define Catholic doctrineSalvation from faith AND worksChurch alone was to decide interpretation of the BibleIgnatius of Loyola begins missionary society (Jesuits)Europe remained divided with Protestants mainly in the North and Catholics in the South

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