renaissance (rebirth) a new vision of humanity 1450 – 1600
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Curiosity is Genius
Renaissance was a time of rebirth of knowledge. Cultures, art and architecture from past eras were revisited and incorporated into the Renaissance. The Renaissance evolved from a time of strict belief based on the Church, to a time of curiosity and opening up to other ideas that were not just based on the Catholic Church. Geniuses such as Leonardo Da Vinci can be recognized as a true Renaissance man because of his inquiry. Being a curious person, he explored and experimented with a lot of concepts, such as flying. He also reflects the rebirth of knowledge by incorporating some of the Ancient Roman ideas. The basic concept of a dome derived from Ancient Roman architecture which was explored by other architects. Da Vinci took this knowledge and included it into his own designs. Leonardo Da Vinci is very well known as the painter of the all around famous, Mona Lisa. But he was not just a painter. He was a scientist as well. An inventor.
While trying to find the formula of having the same area of a square and a given circle, Leonardo Da Vinci was able to use this knowledge to draw his people to scale. Although his calculations failed, it helped him with his paintings. In the painting, Baptism of Christ, by Andrea del Verrocchio who was Da Vincis master, Andrea del Verrochio let Leonardo paint one of the angels, as it was common for the master to allow their apprentices to paint sections of a masters painting. The angel Leonardo drew stands out from the rest of the painting, with its intricate detail. In Leonardos own painting, the Virgin of the Rocks, the Virgin and babies are all to scale with details such as the shape of their muscles clearly shown. He was able to paint with such accuracy because he was also a scientist. He liked to open up corpses and study their anatomy. Da Vinci has numerous sketches of bodies and their insides. They clearly show muscles and tendons, and how they look like in different positions. Apart from dissecting corpses, Leonardo also spent time outside carefully studying peoples body movements such as hands. He sketched them in their different positions and drew with a lot of detail. Therefore, this helped him with his paintings such as the very famous Mona Lisa. If the painting is studied carefully, her hands are in a carefully placed and elegant position with the bottom hand supporting the top hand.
Leonardo Da Vinci also asked a lot of questions about other concepts, such as flying. He spent a lot of time observing birds and their flight as well. After studying them, he invented devices that would help man fly. Based on theory, knowledge and observation he constructed the actual devices and while some of them failed, some of them worked as well. In fact, he invented a parachute, something that we now have today. Leonardo Da Vinci was indeed a very curious person. And his curiosity led him to becoming a genius. A true Renaissance man.
St. Peter's BasilicaSt. Peter's Basilica is a Late Renaissance church located within the Vatican City.
It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites.
It has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people.
It is the burial site of Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and first Bishop of Rome.
Saint Peter's tomb, along with many other Popes is directly below the altar of the basilica.
Construction of the present basilica began on April 18, 1506 and was completed on November 18, 1626.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter's_Basilica
The Italian Renaissance
It originated in Italy around 1300 AD.
These new ideas were well-received and flourished throughout Italy.
By 1500, these new ideas had also reached Northern parts of Europe.
Understanding the Beginnings of the Renaissance:To understand the beginnings of the Renaissance, you must go back approximately 800 years, to the fall of the Roman Empire. For 1,000 years, Rome ruled most of Europe, bringing advancements in technology, learning and government. Once Rome fell to invaders in 542 CE, Western Europe fell into a stagnant period known as the Middle Ages.
Society regressed; People did not venture far from their small villages.
Local lords ruled by force and intimidation.
Learning took place only in religious houses.
Europeans grew up ignorant, illiterate, and superstitious.
Peasants and serfs did not find life beautiful or intriguing.
They lived in miserable conditions with little hope of improving their lives.
If you were born a peasant, you would most likely die a peasant.
Their main goal in life was finding eternal salvation.
Life on Earth was a journey to suffer through, in order to reach Heaven.
New Beliefs at the End of the Middle Ages:
As Western Europe slowly emerged from the Middle Ages, new ideas and beliefs about life and its purpose began to spread. This school of thought, known as humanism, was based on the belief that life on Earth had a point of its own. It did not have to be a miserable pit-stop on the way to Heaven. According to humanists, life was beautiful and should be enjoyed.
The Rise of Merchants at the End of the Middle Ages:The Black Death, wiped out hundreds of thousands of Europeans. This caused a huge shortage of workers.Wages rose as a result of a high demand for workers (laborers).The standard of living rose as the wages improved.This lead to the rise of wealthy merchants,They would provide the money, resources and the incentive for the Renaissance
The Renaissance brought Changes in Society:
It was a cultural movement.
The social changes that took place during the Renaissance were slow, but steady.
By the end of the Renaissance every aspect of European society had undergone some type of transformation.
Individuals had become for confident and felt more empowered
Humanism was a key Component of the Renaissance:
It was also an the intellectual movement.It was based on the study of classical Greek and Roman cultures. Humanists believed that your accomplishments were important and defined who you were as a person. It instilled an attitude of Live for Today.The merchant class liked this idea because they were tired of being considered less important than ruling nobles (privileged class, born rich).
Humanism and Renaissance Art:New techniques in art created astounding works of art.
A technique known as Perspective made scenes appear three dimensional.
Careful shading make objects look round and real, rather than flat.
Using human models helped artists portray the human body far more accurately than in Medieval art.
Renaissance art glorified the human body.
It placed importance of the individual and were secular (non-religious).
The works of the four great masters, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Donatello set the standard for Renaissance art.
They were students of humanism and their works focused on the individual. Davincis Mona Lisa portrays a simple woman, wearing a simple smile.Artists turned to the classics of Ancient Greece and Rome for inspirations.
Pre-Renaissance Art:Early Medieval art was Romanesque styleRomanesque paintings are naive; the characters have unrealistic features and showed no emotion By 1100 AD, Medieval art had become Gothic Gothic architecture can be recognized by the pointed arches on buildingsGothic art shows more concern for realism and emotion
Pre-Renaissance Art:Early Middle Ages: Romanesque Art
Late Middle Ages: Gothic Art and ArchitectureThis painting, commonly known as the Triptych of Beffi, from the name of the nearby town, was attributed to a follower of Taddeo di Bartolo (Siena, 1362/63 -1422)http://geometryonline.pbworks.com/f/1266865520/architecture%205.gif
Gothic Architecture became popular in the late Medieval Period. It was most commonly used for cathedrals and churches in Europe.
Westminster Abbey is a large, Gothic church.
It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English monarchs.
What did Humanism contribute to Western Culture?Intellectuals began to spread scientific knowledge throughout Europe despite the Churchs opposition to it.
Humanists had great interests in history, philosophy, art and literature.
They looked backwards, at the cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration.
The children of wealthy merchants and nobles started reading humanist philosophy.
According to Humanism, education should stimulate students creative powers.
Students were taught poetry, history, and public speaking.Before the Humanist movement, the Church successfully controlled all aspects of our lives.
Although it demanded total obedience, Europeans under humanist influence began to question the Churchs practises.