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  • Gaitskell

    PH0008

    Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity

    Lecture 9 (Special Relativity)

    Relativistic Kinematics

    Relativistic Doppler Effect & Visualisation

    Prof Rick Gaitskell

    Department of PhysicsBrown University

    Main source at Brown Course Publisher

    background material may also be available at http://gaitskell.brown.edu

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Section: Special Relativity Week 4

    Homework (due for M 3/11) Reading (Prepare for 3/11)o SpecRel (also by French)

    Ch5 RelativisticKinematics

    Lecture 8 (M 3/11)o Relativistic Kinematics

    Velocities

    Doppler Effect

    Lecture 6 (W 3/13)o General Relativity

    Guest Lecture from Prof Ian DellAntonio

    Lecture 7 (F 3/15) Doppler Effect Reanalysis of Twin Paradox with signal

    exchange

    Introdution to Relativistic Dynamics

    Reading (Prepare for 3/18)o SpecRel (also by French)

    Ch6 Relativistic Dynamics: Collisions andConservation Laws

    (Review)

    Ch3 Einstein & Lorentz Transforms Ch4 Realtivity: Measurement of Length

    and Time Inetrvals

    Ch5 RelativisticKinematics

    Homework #8 (M 3/18)o Start early!

    (see web Assignments)

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Homework / Office Hours

    Please pick up your HW #1-4 from outside my office B&H 516

    Special Office Hourso I will hold special office hours on Friday 1-3 pm

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Question SectionQuestion Section

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Question SpecRel L09-Q1

    Two objects have velocity along x b1=0.5 and b2=-0.5measured in our frame? What is their apparentclosing velocity in our frame?

    o(1) 0.0c

    o(2) 0.5c

    o(3) 0.8c

    o(4) 1.0c

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Question SpecRel L09-Q2

    Two objects have velocity b1=0.5 and b2 =-0.5measured in our frame S? What is their apparentclosing velocity viewed from object 1?

    o(1) 0.0c

    o(2) 0.5c

    o(3) 0.8c

    o(4) 1.0c

    Let frame of object 1 be S moving at b1 in frame S

    Velocity of 2 in S frame is

    b 2 =b2 - b( )1+ b2b( )

    =(-0.5) - (+0.5)( )

    1- (-0.5)(+0.5)( )

    =-1( )

    1+ 0.25( )= 0.8

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Question SpecRel L09-Q3

    In the acoustic Doppler Effect - what is the fequencyshift dependent on?

    o(1) Only the relative source-observer velocity

    o(2) Velocity of source in medium

    o(3) Velocity of observer in medium

    o(4) Both (2) & (3)

    n = n1- ureceiver w1- usource w

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Question SpecRel L09-Q4

    What colour is my tie, if am approaching you at b=1?o(1) Red

    o(2) Infra-Red

    o(3) Blue

    o(4) None of above

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Question SpecRel L09-Q5

    How does a sphere, moving with high perpendicularvelocity, appear to us?

    o(1) Contracted along direction of motion, but same heightas when stationary

    o(2) Still spherical

    o(3) Contracted vertically, but same width as when stationary

    o(4) Need more information

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Doppler EffectRelativistic Doppler Effect

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Doppler Effect in Sound

    Acoustical Effecto (Reading).

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Doppler Effect

    Source in S frame, Observer in S frame

    x

    ct

    x

    ct

    1st Pulse

    (n+1) Pulse

    (x1,t1)

    t = nt

    (x2,t2)

    x 1 = x 2

    t = 0

    Consider 1st and (n +1)th light pulses from source at x = 0 which are both observed at position x 1 = x 2 , (the observer is stationary in S ).(b is velocity of observer frame S measured in S)

    In S frame, if we consider the propagation time of the light then the obs. evts #1 and # 2 are located at(1) x1 = ct1 = x0 + bct1(2) x2 = c t2 - nt( ) = x0 + bct2

    Therefore, subtracting (2) - (1) abovec t2 - t1( ) - cnt = bc t2 - t1( )

    c t2 - t1( ) =cnt

    1- b( )=

    cnt1- b( )

    x2 - x1 =bcnt1- b( )

    In observer frame S using Loretz Trans.c t 2 - t 1( ) = g c t2 - t1( ) - b x2 - x1( )[ ]

    = gcnt1- b( )

    - bbcnt1- b( )

    x0

    The time interval covers n periods, andthe apparent period t in S is

    t =t2 - t1

    n

    = gt

    1- b( )- b

    bt1- b( )

    =gt

    1- b( )1- b 2[ ]

    = g 1+ b( )t

    Sour

    ce x

    =0

    Obs

    erve

    rx

    =con

    st.

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Doppler Effect (2)

    Source in S frame, Observer in S frame,moving away from source with velocity b

    o The frequency the observer sees is lower thanthat of the source

    o This answer depends only on relative velocity ofsource and observer, unlike acoustic effect

    The time interval covers n periods, andthe apparent period t in S is

    t = g 1+ b( )t

    =1+ b( )2

    1- b 2( )

    12

    t

    =1+ b1- b

    12t

    Or in terms of frequencies n

    n =1- b1+ b

    12n

    The time interval covers n periods, andthe apparent period t in S is

    t =t2 - t1

    n

    = gt

    1- b( )- b

    bt1- b( )

    =gt

    1- b( )1- b 2[ ]

    = g 1+ b( )t

    Remember Acoustical Doppler Effect : -Stationary source, receeding receiver

    n = 1- b( )nReceeding source, stationary receiver

    n =1

    1+ b( )n

    where b is the velocity of moving objectdivided by wave velocity in medium

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Doppler Effect (3)

    Source in S frame, Observer in S frame,moving away from source with velocity b

    o The frequency the observer sees is lower than thatof the source: RED SHIFTED

    If source and observer approach one anotherthen sign of b is reversed

    o The frequency is increased: BLUE SHIFTED

    o (Frequency of blue light is higher than red light)

    The frequency of a clock approaching usdirectly will appear to be higher, not (s)lower

    o This in contrast to viewing clock from sideo We must be clear about situation we are studying!

    Receeding at b

    n =1- b1+ b

    12n

    Approaching at b

    n =1+ b1- b

    12n

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Doppler Effect (4)

    Exampleso Red shift of galaxies (Hubble)

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Doppler Effect (5)

    Transverse Doppler Effecto Classically when velocity of object is perpendicular to sight linethere is no Doppler Effect

    o However, relativistically there is still time dilation to consider

    Perpendicular at velocity b, observer S t = gt

    n =1g

    n

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Twin ParadoxTwin ParadoxDiscuss

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Twin Paradox

    The phenomena of electrodynamics as well as ofmechanics possess no properties corresponding tothe idea of absolute rest. They suggest rather that the same laws of electrodynamics and optics willbe valid for all frames of reference for which theequations of mechanics hold good.

    Einstein, quoted in Physics, Structure and Meaning, p288 Leon Cooper

    First Lawo Body continues at rest, or in uniform motion

    During acceleration and deceleration this frame is not inertialo We will return to this problem at end of Relativistic Kinematics Section

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Twin Paradox & Signal Exchange

    From Eartho 12 pulses are sent (including one at arrival)o Note only 2 arrive at ship during out bound leg

    From Ship (moving at 2/3c)o 12/1.34~8.9 pulses are sento Earth also sees a very uneven reception

    pattern

    x

    ct

    Light-Ray

    Astronaut is moving at 2/3c on both legs

    Time dilation will be t = gt

    g =1

    1- 23( )2

    ~ 1.34

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    RelativisticRelativistic Visualisation Visualisation

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Apparent Rotation at Relativistic Speeds

    Apparent Rotation of Object due to finite propagation time of lighto J. Terrell, Physical Review 116, 1041 (1959).

    To viewer the : -apparent length of perpendicular face is

    =W0c

    v

    Apparent length of parallel face is

    =L0g

    Note this could be considered a rotation inrest frame of q since projected lengths would be

    W0 sinq and L0 cosq , respectively

    (cos2 q = 1g 2

    =1- b 2 =1- sin2 q)

    L0

    W0

    v

    Side View

    Assume oberving at perpendicular,large distance away

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    and a sphere?

    How would a sphere appear?o R. Penrose, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 55, 137 (1959).

    o Always spherical

  • PH0008 Gaitskell Class Spring2002 Rick Gaitskell

    Relativistic Tram

    Effectso Lorentz contraction of parallel length

    What is the g ?

    o Rotation of trailing perpendicular edge Time of flight effect

    o Curve of verticals above and below centre of view ditto

    v~0.87c

    Images provided byo C.M. Savage and A.C. Searle,

    Department of Physics andTheoretical

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