reform movements 1820-1860 “fires of perfection”

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  • REFORM MOVEMENTS1820-1860

    Fires of Perfection

  • Usher in the Kingdom of GodReform emerges in response to great amount of social, economic, & political changeMarket revolution & Jacksonian Democracy created

  • Essential Questions:How does Finney change the religious beliefs and practices?Which reform movements sought social control and to reinforce the existing social and value structure?Which reform movements sought to challenge the existing structures? How do they reveal the paradox of the individual with in the community? How are they a response to economic and social changes of the period?What is the impact of each movement degree of success????

  • The ParadoxRadical Seeks to change social institutions, values, norms, relationshipsSeeks to free or liberate the individualConservativeSeeks social control and conformity in values, norms and relationships Seeks to incorporate groups into the social order and to preserve it

  • Characteristics Individualism and free will Self reliance Perfectionism society can fulfill its potentialOptimism can create change and a perfect society Social activism and social responsibility Equality and democratization Hard work, moderation, thrift, self control, temperance emphasizedMillenialism

  • Demands of Society v. Freedom of the IndividualHelps to deal with the anxieties of the periodImpact/emphasis differed N and SVision of society individual within communityRomanticism and reform

  • Catalyst: Second Great AwakeningFinney salvation due to free will a choice Methods emotionalism, Camp meetings, the anxious benchAppeal frontier, small town, middle class Cane Ridge ------Rochester Burned out district

  • Second Great Awakening

  • Charles Finney

  • Lyman Beecher Lane SeminaryConcerned Finney too emotional and too much emphasis on perfection

  • The Benevolent Empire

  • NY: Burned Over district

  • Religious Growth - American Bible Society

  • Itinerant Preachers & Camp Meetings

  • African Methodist Episcopal Church Richard Allen autonomy & equality

  • Impact: Ties religion to the market economyIndividualism and OpportunityMiddle class values dominateEvangelical Protestantism = dominant religion in America

  • Cult of DomesticityDoctrine of two spheresMen outer worldWomen home, religious and moral valuesMC women the home, the church, reform movements, sisterhoodC. Beecher education for women

  • Middle Class Family ValuesDecrease in birth rates Children as investmentRomantic love and affection in marriage New norms of behaviorChildren as individuals

  • Childhood: Homer Snap the Whip

  • Homer: The Berry Boy

  • Transcendentalism/RomanticsTruth through emotion; knowledge through nature go beyond intellectImportance of the individual Emerson the Oversoul; self relianceThoreau Walden; Civil DisobedienceDark and light romantics

  • Emerson and Thoreau

  • Hawthorne, Melville, Poe

  • Dickinson and WhitmanI am nobodyLeaves of GrassWho are you?

  • Hudson River School

  • Utopian MovementsSeparate from society Often more radical, challenging to society Redefinition of traditional gender roles

  • Examples:Shakers- Ann LeeEgalitarian, separate, celibateOneida Noyes, complex marriageMormons Smith Book of MormonPolygamy, rigid social organization, kinship New Harmony Owens, socialist, no marriageFourier - socialists Brook Farm transcendentalists, salon

  • Mother Ann Lee & Shakers

  • Oneida Community

  • Joseph Smith - Mormons

  • Social Activism/ReformMeets need of the market economy Emphasis on social controlMiddle class norms and values

  • TemperanceMost popular and successful (women)Drunkeness = social burden Concern for familiesNeed for a sober work force Alcohol associated with immigrants Moderation v abstinence political prohibitionMaine Law 1851

  • Education - MannGoal = public funding, tax supportOpportunity (women, immigrants) Moral teachings and middle class values Teacher training Required educationDivided N/S Divided immigrant & WC from MC

  • Asylum/Prison Reform: DixRehabilitation and control Schools for blind and deaf Limited success

  • AbolitionGradual v immediate emancipation Emancipation with or without colonization American colonization society -----American Anti-Slavery Society

  • Abolitionist LeadersWeld and Tappen Lane Seminary Garrison The Liberator anti-government positionAfrican American AbolitionistsDouglass The North Star - VoiceWalker The Appeal rebellionTubman URR; Truth

  • ImpactSupport medium sized towns of N Opposition S, urban areas, WC fears of job competitionIncrease division N/SPolitical impact Gag rulePulls the party system Uncle Toms Cabin morality

  • Schism of 1840 Role of women Position on government and constitution

  • Womens Rights Empowered through reform activityDeclaration of Sentiment Seneca Falls 1848Stanton, Grimke Mott, Anthony

  • We hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created equal; they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights..

  • Challenges of ReformReform as a necessary part of democracy plays a stabilizing function permits adjustment to changing conditions OR Reform as a disruptive event caused by malcontentsWhat factors cause reform periodsDoes it serve the interests of some classes at the expense of othersWhat tactics are available to reformers in a democratic society?

  • Significance:Antebellum Reformers -WaltersHighlights areas of tensions show the fault lines of society -- the disconnect between values and behaviors Presents alternatives to consider whats possible Process of adjustment to change a democracy may need groups of private citizens who care deeply about certain issues and who argue them loudly, persistently even abrasively!

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