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  • Recycling of Cleaning Fluids to Meet

    Green Cleaning Process Targets

    By

    Steve Stach

    Austin American Technology

  • Setting recycling targets? Paying for recycling? What can be recycled? Review of the 4 basic types of fluid recycling

    Absorption

    Distillation

    Filtration

    Replenishment Estimating the cost and saving

    Estimating system life

    Cost Model review

  • Government Regulations

    Few direct mandates

    Significant cost/liability regarding waste;

    i.e. generation, storage, transportation, disposal

    Corporate Directives

    Avoid liability by not generating

    Cut manufacturing expenses

    Marketing Green Manufacturing sells product

  • Water Saving up to 99% reduction Chemical Savings 50-99% reduction Energy Saving 10-50% reduction Waste Disposal 50-90% reduction

  • Just about everything! Water

    Tap, DI Water Mixtures, Neutral pH

    Buffered aqueous mixtures Water Mixtures, Alkaline

    Emulsions, Homogenous mixtures Organic, nonflammable

    Halogenated solvents Organic, combustible

    Glycols, oils, esters Organic, Flammable

    Alcohols, light hydrocarbons

  • 1. It depends on the Solvent

    2. It depends on what is happening in the solvent?

    Alkaline/Saponifier

    Water/Emulsion

    Organic Solvent

    Reacting w/Soils

    Accumulating Soils

    Evaporation

  • Recycle

    Method

    Used with Waste stream Waste disposal

    handler

    System

    Complexity

    level

    Safety concern

    Chemical

    addition

    Reactive

    Aqueous

    Mixtures

    (saponifiers)

    Soil loaded

    tank dump

    Company Technician Medium

    Ion Exchange Rinse water

    Alcohols

    Glycols

    Esters

    Depleted DI

    resins

    Third party Operator Low

    Carbon

    Adsorption

    Rinse water

    Carbon media

    with organics

    Third party

    Operator Low

    Zeolite

    Absorption

    NPB

    CFCs

    HCFCs

    Zeolite with

    adsorbed

    contaminate

    Third party

    Operator Low

    Chelation Water with

    heavy metals

    Chelation media

    with heavy

    metals

    Third party

    Operator

    Low

    Distillation NPB

    CFCs

    HCFCs

    Non volatile

    residues

    Company Technician High

    Filtration All fluids Filters with

    contaminate

    Company Technician

    Medium

    Reverse

    Osmosis

    Rinse water Reject fluid

    stream

    Company Technician

    Medium

    Identify & Understand Your Recycling Method Recycling System Choices

  • Cleaning/Rinsing Agent Adsorption

    Distillation Filtration Replenish

    Ingredient

    Water Only Recommend for

    high purity

    Rarely Used Recommended for

    General use

    Not Used

    Water + additive, Neutral pH Not Used Not Used Recommended for

    General use

    Recommend

    Water Alkaline Not Used Not Used

    Recommended for

    General use

    Recommend

    Organic Non-flammable Used Recommend Recommended for

    General use

    Not Used

    Organic Combustible Recommend

    Used

    Recommended for

    General use

    Not Used

    Organic Flammable Recommend

    Used

    Recommended for

    General use

    Not Used

    H2O

    IPA

    NPB

  • Key Ingredient Replacement

    Common in aqueous mixture to replace drag out or reactive losses

    Saponifing agents

    Degreasing stabilizers

  • Filtration

    Use of filters to remove soils

    Distillation

    Removes contaminates with higher boiling points

    Absorption

    Use of Carbon, DI resins, Zeolites and other Media to Adsorb contaminates

  • One of the oldest recycling methods Configuration

    Cartridge, Bag, Plate, Cake Filter Size

    1to10 micron typical Design Type

    Mono or Multi-Filament

    Absolute vs Standard Recommended uses

    Used in most closed or open loop cleaning systems

  • Boiling fluid is vaporized and condensed

    High boiling soils are left

    behind for disposal Recommended for non-

    flammable, single solvents or azeotropic solvent blends

    Not usually recommended for

    water or flammable solvents

  • Ionic soils are captured by ion exchange resins Cations (Na+, K+,NH3

    +) are removed by cationic exchange resins

    Anions (OA-, Br-,CO3

    -) are removed by anionic exchange resins

    Mixed Beds remove both Anions and Cations Recommended for purifying water and most organic

    solvents Not recommended for solutions containing amines

  • RO is most commonly used for feed water generation to closed loop cleaners

    RO typical removed ~90% of dissolved solids from tap water

  • Molecular sized microscopic pores block large molecules and allow smaller molecules to pass

  • Absorptive medias capture metal ions Cations (Pb+2, Ag+2,Cu+2) are captured by

    cationic exchange resins GAC can do the same Use new GAC and DI media or find

    regenerator with metal cheatlation system

  • A molecular sieve traps molecular soils in microscopic pores.

    Naturally occurring materials are referred to as zeolites

    Man made materials are called molecular sieve. Molecular sieve comes in different pore sizes

    ranging from 3 to 12 angstrom Commonly used as a desiccant Available in round or extruded pellets

  • Useful in removing water, flux residues, and most ions from organic cleaning solvents

    35X 700X 4,500X

  • Molecular Sieve filters to remove contamination from Degreasing Solvents

    Organic solvents

  • Organic soils are captured by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)

    Works on basis that Like

    attracts Like Capacity depends on the

    molecule Often used in conjunction with

    DI closed loop systems Carbon Exhaustion Foams Rinse

  • GAC is made by anaerobic heating organic material to drive off all volatiles

    Most GAC is acid washed to remove acid soluble impurities

    Coconut shell and anthracite coal are two type that product low powdering

    GAC can be partially regenerated by steam stripping not recommended

  • Compound Mole Weight Water

    Solubility %

    Adsorption g

    soil/ g GAC

    Adsorption %

    reduction

    2-ethyl butanol 102.2 0.43 .170 85.5%

    Mono-ethanol

    amine

    61.1

    .015 7.2%

    Di-ethanol

    amine

    105.1 95.4 .057 27.5%

    Nitro-benzene 123.1 0.19 .196 95.6%

    Butyric acid 88.1 .119 59.5%

    Ethylene glycol

    mono butyl

    ether

    118.2

    0.112 55.9%

    Test solution1g/liter

  • Mass Balance analysis looks at all materials entering and leaving the cleaning process.

    Shows where you are loosing or gaining fluids/ingredients

  • Fluid Tank

    Recycling

    System

    Cleaning

    System Waste

    Fluid Feed,

    Make-up Mist-Evaporative

    And Drag-Out

    Losses

    w/soils

    Parts

    Cleaning Fluid

    With Soils

    Sewer or Disposal

  • Turbine Mixed

    GAC

    Carbon

    1g/m 1g/m

    Filter M

    Vent

    Rinse Wash

    Dry

  • The impact of the recycling location

  • The impact of the recycling location

    Turbine Mixed GAC

    Carbon

    Chem

    pump

    1g/m 1g/m

    Filter M

    ~25gallons

    In Situ

    (in the cleaner)

    Plant System

    (in the factory)

    Third party

    (bonded & licensed)

  • The Local Sewer Plant Check with local water authorities A permit may be requires

    The DI Guy

    What materials do they use? Source, new or regenerated?

    How do they dispose of the waste?

    Solvent Recycler/Disposal Use EPA licensed & bonded company Cradle to grave responsibility

  • Indep

    Inline Cleaner Cost Model Process Data Inline Open Loop

    Closed Loop

    Central

    System

    In Situ Closed

    Loop

    Varib Equipment cost $200,000 $200,000 $200,000

    DI system system cost $25,000 $35,000 $5,000

    Shipping $5,000 $5,000 $4,000

    Water consumption rate gph (operating) 300 10 10

    Cost of water $'s/gal $0.01 $0.01 $0.01

    Cost to regenerate DI (1.5Ft3) $300.00 $500.00 $500.00

    Water purity (dissolved solids) mg/gal 250 20 20

    Final rinse rate GPM 5 5 5

    Power cost $s/Khr $0.10 $0.10 $0.10

    Operating KW (KV*A) 100 110 75

    7 year equipment amortization

    6 Run time per Shift

    300 Shifts per year

    Process Costs ($'s/hr)

    Absorbtive capacity (mg CaCO3 or Succinate) 1,680,000 7,900,000 7,900,000

    Bed Life (hrs of operation) 3.7 219.4 219.4

  • Depends on the Ion Molecular weight & valance

    Tank Absorptive Capacity (Abtotal)

    Bed Volume (Vab) Absorptive Capacity (Abcap)

    (Abtotal) = (Abcap) X (Vab)

  • Contamination Feed Rate

    Mass Flow Rate (MFrate) Bedlife = (Abtotal / MFrate)x %factor* * %factor is % available in begining + % remaining at exhaustion

    US map showing

    water hardness

  • Inline Open

    Loop

    Closed

    Loop

    Central

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