Reading Horizons. Learner’s Brain-Mind 7 out of 10 students will learn to read regardless of the teaching method employed. 3 will NOT! Learner’s Brain/Mind
Post on 29-Dec-2015
Embed Size (px)
7 out of 10 studentswill learn to read regardlessof the teaching method employed.3 will NOT!Learners Brain/Mind
012345Consistent PatternDr. Jeanne Chall, Harvard UniversityGrade Level
What About the 30%?
We teach to the 30%, but reach 100%What We Do
Students can struggle with reading due to gaps in education.ELL students with little understanding of the structure of the English language.Up to 80% of those with learning disabilities have a processing disorder that will affect their reading and language processing abilities (Hoover, 2002).Most lack a solid foundation in phonemic awareness and explicit, phonics instruction.
Reasons for Reading Issues:
The dag writox is smowk and spi. Runchet is shonsig, but Thift and Fenel are woagly skeag. Phin can wrozz and Bappet can vox, but Phin cant shass. Bappet will densing and runchet in the mirrunsic blage. The Difficulty for ESL Readers
Yale StudywithMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 61 Students: 29 DyslexicLanguage Processing Disorders
Primary visualcortexSuperiortemporalgyrusUnimpaired StudentInferior frontal gyrusAnguralgyrusVisual perception
Inferior frontal gyrus(Attempts to convert visual information into sounds)Dyslexic StudentVisual perception
Dyslexic students can learn these relationships with intensive phonics training. . . After more than a century of frustration, it has now been shown that the brain can be rewired.Dr. Sally ShaywitzResearch Shows:
What Does This Mean?
So What Do We Do?We teach the way the research has shown to be the most effective type of instruction.We teach to the way our students brains learn.We empower teachers with skills and strategies so that they can empower our students!
1. Explicit and sequential2. Constant reinforcement3. Use a program that moves quickly!4. Multi-sensoryPhonics should be taught:5. Employs a marking systemDr. Leon Whitsell, International Dyslexia Association.
Framework 42 Sounds 5 Phonetic Skills 2 Decoding Skills
BbFfDdGgAaHhJjLlMmEeNnPpRrSsOoTtVvWwXxYyUuZzQqCcKkIiConsonants & Vowels
bag dadgab fadBeginning WordsXXXX
Most Common Words
Sentence Structurethe, a, an, I, it, is, this, through, etc.Most Common Words
How do you know when to spell with a C and when to spell with a K?C / K Rule
cankitcotkidcopkegcupKenC / K RuleXXX X XXXX
metjumpmesmileboatFive Phonetic Skills
motelDecoding Skill #1
1. mo 2. mot3. mote4. motelDecoding Skill #1
motelDecoding Skill #1One consonant (guardian) goes onXX
campusDecoding Skill #2XXTwo consonants (guardians) split
Complete the 42 SoundsMurmur DiphthongsDigraphs
Special Vowel SoundsFinal Sounds of the 42 Sounds
If students are taught phonics explicitly, sequentially, and systematically they can become automatic readers. Once we point out the systematic framework of our language, they cant help but see it!If we teach to the way our students learn, they can be successful.We can empower our teachers with evidence-based and time-tested strategies that can change our students lives forever.Every Student Can Read!
Can You See the Arrow?
Can You See the Arrow?
Train teachers in explicit phonics instruction, vocabulary instruction and how to address ELLs and struggling readers specific needs. Continue to support and increase teacher knowledge and skill set for fidelity of implementation and program success.Provide training that will make all of your teachers reading specialists and dramatically change your schools/districts reading culture.
Instructional Materials: Tools & Curriculum
Instructional Materials, Tools & Curriculum
English as a Second Language Instruction Aids
English as a Second Language Instructional Aids
***This is the 30% that, if not taught explicit, systematic phonics, will never become fluent and accurate readers. Dr. Jean Chall, professor emeritus at Harvard University School of Education, said that 30% of students will memorize words up to the 4th grade and then level off. This becomes a consistent pattern with these types of students. They will not advance unless they are explicitly taught word attack skills.*Now I pose the question, WHY PHONICS?An interesting statistic worth noting is that seven out of 10 students will learn to read, no matter what method is used.[NOTE: Press the space bar] However, that leaves roughly 30% that will not.*Take a look at this paragraph.How comfortable would it make you to read this out loud? Do you have sufficient knowledge of decoding strategies to help you fulfill this assignment? This is a similar circumstance for our ESOL readers.What happens to your eyes when you come across an unfamiliar word? Is this fluent reading? Now, from a teachers perspective, do you feel competent in your ability to teach ESL students the decoding strategies necessary to read this paragraph accurately? Why are strategies so important? *Amazingly, it is now possible to watch an individuals brain work while he or she is reading. Dr. Sally Shaywitz is co-director of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and a member of the National Reading Panel. Using MRI technology, (a Magnetic Resonance Imaging process), Dr. Shaywitz made some remarkable findings.Of the 69 students used in this research, 29 had previously been diagnosed as dyslexic. This is what Dr. Shaywitz found*Good readers used all three of the main portions of the brain involved in reading to manipulate word problems. These three areas of the brain were highly activated while reading.
*When dyslexic students were reading, most of the activity took place in the frontal portion of the brain. They did not utilize those portions in the rear of their brain that helps make visual and auditory connections in language.
*Dr. Shaywitz asserts that[READ SCREEN.] Research has proven that many learning disabled students, including dyslexic individuals, have trouble breaking words down into letter-sound segments. But research has also proven that they can learn these relationships with intensive phonics training.Regardless of whether the issues are from a processing disorder, gaps in education or ELL needing bottom up strategies, all need the same type of instruction for true success. If there are weakness in the top parts of the triangle, it is almost always because there is weakness in those first foundational parts of the pyramid.*As part of this multi-sensory involvement, its very helpful if the program employs a method for identification, such as a marking system. In Sally Shaywitzs book Overcoming Dyslexia, she states that to acquire a new word, a student must scrutinize the inner details of the word and not gloss over it. For the most part, analyzing each letter and letter group in a word is the only way an accurately stored representation may be found. She compares this to detective work: the more clues, the greater the chance of solving the mystery!
*Those critical skills include: [NOTE: Press space bar]The 42 sounds of the alphabet,[NOTE: Press space bar] the five phonetic skills upon which all English words are based to determine whether a vowel is long or short, and[NOTE: Press space bar]two decoding skills that teach how to break words into syllables.*Progress is made through the rest of the alphabet. Consonants and then a vowel are taught with each letter group, and words are made with all letters and vowels learned up to this point. Alphabetic order is generally followed, with the exception of B and D, C and K, and I. B and D are separated because some students confuse the letter formation and the sounds that each letter makes. C and K are left to the end because you have to know all the vowels before being able to teach the spelling rule when C makes the /k/ sound. I is separated from the E because it is difficult for some students to distinguish between the two similar sounds.*Using only the five letters of the first letter set, students immediately begin forming words. They are learning both the phoneme/grapheme relationship and how those sounds are used within a word. At this point they begin the use of the unique marking system that is employed throughout the course. They identify the vowel by placing an x beneath it.*Following this 2nd letter set, we begin to introduce what we call the Most Common Words. Many of them are sight words because they dont follow phonetic rules. Others are just words that need to be known by sight because they are used so often. Most Common Words are introduced a few at a time throughout the course.Sentence structure is introduced here as well. It is introduced early in the course so students can begin to read and write simple sentences.
*Now that the alphabet has been introduced, lets look at the C/K rule. Can anyone tell me when the /k/ sound is spelled with a C or a K? Specifically, if you hear the /k/ sound [say the sound /k/, NOT the letter name] at the beginning of a word, how do you know if it begins with a C or a K?*Looking at these two lists, what do you think?The answer is that you listen for the sound of the vowel that follows the /k/ sound.If /k/ is followed by the vowel sounds of A, O, or U, it will alwa