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Raster Displays. Images are composed of arrays of pixels displayed on a raster device. Two main ways to create images: Scan and digitize an existing image. Compute a value for each pixel procedurally. The result may be stored as a pixmap, a rectangular array of color values. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Raster Displays Images are composed of arrays of pixels displayed on a raster device.Two main ways to create images:Scan and digitize an existing image.Compute a value for each pixel procedurally.The result may be stored as a pixmap, a rectangular array of color values.

  • Scan Conversion (Rasterization)

    Determines individual pixel values.Rasterization in the GL graphics pipeline:

  • Scan Conversion (2)Graphics pipeline actually produces fragments: a color, a depth, and a texture coordinate pair for each vertex.A number of processing steps and tests are performed on the fragments before they are written to the screen.We can also perform operations on images on the screen using the fragment operations portion of the pipeline.

  • Manipulating PixmapsPixmaps may be stored in regular memory or in the frame buffer (off-screen or on-screen).Rendering operations that draw into the frame buffer change the particular pixmap that is visible on the display.

  • Pixmap Operations: Copying

  • Pixmap Operations: CopyingglReadPixels () reads a portion of the frame buffer into memory.glCopyPixels() copies a region in one part of the frame buffer into another region of the frame buffer.glDrawPixels() draws a given pixmap into the frame buffer.We can also copy a pixmap from memory to memory.

  • Scaling PixmapsglPixelZoom(float sx, float sy);Sets scale factors in x and y Any floating point values are allowed for sx and sy, even negative ones. The default values are 1.0.The scaling takes place about the current raster position, pt. Scale factors are applied to the image drawn from a pixmap, not to the pixmap.

  • Scaling Pixmaps (2)Roughly, the pixel in row r and column c of the pixmap will be drawn as a rectangle of width sx and height sy screen pixels, with lower left corner at screen pixel (pt.x + sx * r, pt.y + sy * c). More precisely, any screen pixels whose centers lie in this rectangle are drawn in the color of this pixmap pixel.

  • ExampleSix scaled versions of the mandrill (scale factors sx = -1.5, -1.0, -0.5, 1.5, 1.0, 0.5.) To produce each image the new value of sx was set, and glPixelZoom(sx, 1); glutPostRedisplay(); was executed.

  • Pixmap Operations (3)We may rotate a pixmap.We may compare two pixmaps e.g., to detect tumorsWe can describe regions within a pixmap as circles, squares, and so on.We may fill the interior of a region with a color.

  • Pixmap Data TypesA pixmap has a certain number of rows and columns, and each pixel in the array has its color stored according to certain rules.Bitmap: pixel = bit, 0 or 1 (black or white)Gray-scale bitmap: pixel = byte, representing gray levels from 0 (black) through 255 (white)Pixel contains an index into a lookup table (LUT); usually index is a byte

  • Pixmap Data Types (2)RGB pixmap contains 3 bytes, one each for red, green, and blueRGBA pixmap contains 4 bytes, one each for red, green, blue, and alpha (transparency)Code: start by defining a color:struct RGB { public: unsigned char r, g, b; };// Holds one color triple

  • Pixmap Data Types (3)OpenGL represents a pixmap as an array pixel of pixel values stored row by row from bottom to top and across each row from left to right. RGBpixmap class uses this storage mechanism as well (code in Fig. 9.3).Code uses GL functions to implement class functions.

  • Pixmap Data Types (3)Default RGBpixmap constructor: make empty pixmap.Constructor creates a pixmap with r rows and c columns. setPixel() sets a specific pixel value.getPixel() reads a specific pixel value.draw() copies pixmap to frame buffer, placing lower left corner at current raster position.set current raster position using glRasterPos2i (x, y);

  • Pixmap Data Types (4)read() copies from frame buffer to memoryLower left corner is at (x,y), and wid and ht specify the size to be read.copy() does a read followed by a draw, without creating an intermediate pixmapThe region with lower left corner at (x,y), wid by ht in size, is copied to the region whose lower left corner is at the current raster position.

  • Pixmap Data Types (5)readBMPFile() reads an image stored as a (24-bit) BMP file into the pixmap, allocating storage as necessary.writeBMPFile() creates a (24-bit) BMP file that contains the pixmap. Code for both of these functions is given online at the books companion website.

  • Pixmap ApplicationFig. 9.4 shows code for an application to use pixmaps controlled by mouse and keyboard.BMP files are copied into 2 pixmaps.One image is displayed at the initial raster position; a left mouse click draws it again at the current mouse position.

  • Pixmap Application (2)Pressing s toggles between the 2 images.Pressing r reads a 200 x 200 area of the screen and replaces the first pixmap by these values.Right mouse click clears screen.The SDL can use RGBpixmaps.

  • Examples Writing and scaling BMP text to the screen: 4 x 6, 6 x 8, 8 x 12, 12 x 16

  • Examples (2)Window scrolling: blank line replaces bottom, moving all lines up one.

  • Examples (3)Redrawing screen after menu use:

  • Scaling PixmapsScale by s: output has s times as many pixels in x and in y as input; if s is an integer, scale with pixel replication to enlarge. 6 x 8 to 12 x 16

  • Scaling Images (2)To reduce by, for example, 1/3: take every third row and column of the pixmap.This method is usually not satisfactory.Instead, we should average the values of the 9 pixels in each non-overlapping 3 x 3 array, and use that value for the pixel.

  • Rotating ImagesPixmaps may rotated by any amount.Rotating through 90o, 180o, 270o is simple: create a new pixmap and copy pixels from the original to the appropriate spot in the new pixmap.

  • Rotating ImagesOther rotations are difficult. Simplest approach: pixel in transformed image is set to color of pixel it was transformed from in original.This usually leads to bad results. You really should average overall pixels which transform (in part) to this pixel.

  • Rotating Images (2)

  • Combining PixmapsPixmaps are usually combined pixel by pixel (using corresponding pixels).Average 2 images: add the corresponding pixels and divide result by 2 ([A+B]/2)Image differences: Subtract pixel in second image from corresponding pixel in first ([A-B]/2)Boolean image: pixel = 1 if first image brighter than second, 0 else: A > B

  • Combining Pixmaps (2)Weighted average: (1 f)*A + f*B for some fraction f < 1.0.Allows "dissolving" one image into another as f is varied from 0 to 1.

  • Read-Modify-WriteWhen pixmap C is formed by combining pixmaps A and B, it may be stored in a new pixmap C or in one of the original pixmaps.C = A operation B or A = A operation BOpenGL supplies an efficient operation for this when A is the frame buffer.

  • Alpha Channel and Image BlendingBlending allows you to draw a partially transparent image over another image.We use the alpha value, the fourth component in specifying colors.Alpha may have values in the range [0, 255].0 represents total transparency and 255 represents total opacity.It is usually used as /255, to give a value in [0.0, 1.0].

  • Alpha Channel and Image Blending (2)Code: struct RGBA { public: unsigned char r, g, b, a; };To blend 2 images, let a be the alpha value in A and use B = aA + (1- a)B separately for each color (R, G, B).

  • ExampleDragon has a = 255; mask has a = 128; rest have a = 0.

  • Code for BlendingRGBpixmap must be extended to RGBApixmap.Then use B.draw(); A.blend();

  • Tools for Setting and Using the Alpha Channel (2)glBlendFunc may have arguments other than GL_SRC_ALPHA and GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA.DST (destination) can replace SRC (source)GL_ZERO and GL_ONE may also be usedusing GL_DST_ALPHA and GL_ZERO multiplies each color component of a source pixel by the level of the corresponding component in the destination.

  • Example: Cursor Viewing

  • Tools for Setting and Using the Alpha ChannelglColor4f (r, g, b, a); a ranges from 0.0 (total transparency) to 1.0 (total opacity)Fourth value (a) assigns an alpha value to all subsequently defined vertices.Quadruples refl = [r, g, b, a] may be used in glMaterialfv (GL_FRONT, GL_DIFFUSE, refl) to make materials partially transparent.

  • Logical Combinations of PixmapsLogical operations on pixmaps are used to combine pixmaps in various ways.glEnable(GL_COLOR_LOGIC_OP);glLogicOp (operator);Operator values are on the next slide.

  • OpenGL Logical Operators

  • Effects of Logical OperationsLeft to right and top to bottom: A; B; A or B;A xor B;A nand B;A and B.

  • Application: Rubberbanding Lines and RectanglesRubber-banding allows a user to draw a line or rectangle with the mouse and be able to see intermediate versions.The user may adjust the line or rectangle to where it really should be.The line or (one) corner of the rectangle is attached to a fixed point, called the pivot.

  • Application: Rubberbanding Lines and Rectangles (2)The rubber-banded figures must be continually erased and redrawnXOR drawing draws the line or rectangle the first time it is invoked, but if you draw again in XOR mode, the line is erased.

  • Application: Rubber-banding Lines and Rectangles (3)

  • Application: Rubberbanding Lines and Rectangles (4)Code

  • Application: Rubberbanding Lines and Rectangles (5)Code (continued)

  • BitBlt OperationBitBlt (bit block-transfer) is a hardware operation which combines the draw, read, and copy operations.Simplest form: source rectangle of pixels copied to destination rectangle of same size, either in memory or on the screen, using some

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