rail freight transport

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  1. 1. Rail Freight Transport FROM SMALL WAGONS TO MODERN MARVELS..
  3. 3. Where it started? 1776-development of Steam Engine 1807-construction of Cumberland Road 1825-completion of Eric Canal Mid 18th development of Conestoga wagon 1856-development of Pipeline 1869s-massive Railroad System in Utah 1887-formation of Interstate Commerce Commission Act 19th-development due to construction of Highways 1970-flowering Truck transport 1996-concept of containerization & intermodal Transport 1996-air freight Transportation History! Horse drawn wagons. Railways. Flatboats or Rafts. Trucks Steamboats. Cargo Ships. Airlines.
  4. 4. 1829: testing of Sturbridge lion 1830:14miles B & O were opened Oct 1830: first successful locomotive with 7 ton weight was shipped to Charleston 1850-Fedral Grant of land for Railroads from Illinois to Albama 1869s-massive Railroad System in Utah 1887-formation of Interstate Commerce Commission Act 1996-concept of containerization & intermodal Transport Rail Freight Transportation History! 1825- The Pennsylvania Society for promotion of internal improvements in CWG intended construction of Inland navigation System focused on railroads. 1828- construction of Baltimore & Ohio Railways
  5. 5. Regional Difference North America Unified standard gauge rail connecting CAN, MEX, & US Jenney Couplers & Air Brakes 1980s Staggers Rail Act Diesel locomotives & Electrified northeast corridor Eurasia 4 major interconnecting rail networks Major lines are electrified China has an extensive Standard gauge network IND & PAK operate extensive broad gauge network Development of containerization
  6. 6. Continue.. Regional Difference Oceania large rail network, mostly meter gauge, with some broad gauge. Chile and Argentina have Indian gauge networks in the south and meter gauge networks in the north. Africa The railways of Africa were mostly started by colonial powers to bring inland resources to port. A 3 ft. 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge network with Jenney couplers serves southern Africa. East Africa uses meter gauge. North Africa uses standard gauge, but potential connection the European standard gauge network is blocked by the Arab-Israeli conflict. South America Rail developed independently in different parts of Australia and, as a result, three major rail gauges are in use. A standard gauge Trans-Australian Railway spans the continent.
  7. 7. Continue.. Regional Difference
  8. 8. Network GT-Kms Countries North America 2853 US, Canada, Mexico China 2451 ---- Russia 2351 CIS+Finland, Mongolia India 607 Includes Pakistan European Union 391 27 member Countries Brazil 269 Includes Bolivia South Africa 115 Includes Zimbabwe Australia 64 ----- Japan 20 ----- Rail Freight Transport Statistics
  9. 9. Some Modern developments Containerization Double stack containerization Bulk Cargo Rolling highways and piggy back service Special cargo Electrification of rail services
  10. 10. Containerization
  11. 11. System of intermodal freight transport Intermodal containers Standardized dimensions They can be loaded and unloaded, stacked, transported efficiently over long distances, and transferred from one mode of transport to another
  12. 12. Five common standard lengths: 20 ft (6.10 m), 40 ft (12.19 m), 45 ft (13.72 m), 48 ft (14.63 m), and 53 ft (16.15 m). US domestic standard containers are generally 48 ft (14.63 m) and 53 ft (16.15 m) (rail and truck) Container capacity is often expressed in Twenty- foot equivalent units (TEU, or sometimes teu)
  13. 13. Double stack containerization
  14. 14. Double-stack rail transport is a form of intermodal freight transport Intermodal containers are stacked two high on railroad cars. Introduced in North America in 1984, double stack has become increasingly common there, being used for nearly 70% of United States intermodal shipments Using double stack technology, a freight train of a given length can carry roughly twice as many containers, sharply reducing costs per container
  15. 15. Bulk Cargo
  16. 16. Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities It refers to material in either liquid or granular, particulate form, as a mass of relatively small solids, such as petroleum/crude oil, grain, coal, or gravel. Bulk cargo is classified as liquid or dry These cargo are usually dropped or poured, with a spout or shovel bucket, as a liquid or solid, into a railroad car. Liquids, such as petroleum and chemicals, and compressed gases are carried by rail in tank cars..
  17. 17. Rolling highways and piggy back service
  18. 18. In some countries rolling highway, or rolling road, trains are used Trucks can drive straight onto the train and drive off again when the end destination is reached A system like this is used on the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France, as well as on the Konkan Railway in India
  19. 19. Special cargo
  20. 20. Several types of cargo are not suited for containerization or bulk These are transported in special cars custom designed for the cargo. Goods that require certain temperatures during transportation can be transported in refrigerator cars (or reefers - US) or refrigerated vans, but refrigerated containers are becoming more dominant. Extra heavy and oversized loads are carried in Schnabel cars Center beam flat cars are used to carry lumber and other building supplies. Steel plates are transported in modified gondolas called coil cars
  21. 21. Electrification of rail services
  22. 22. Experiments with electrical railways were started by Robert Davidson in 1838 He completed a battery-powered carriage capable of 6.4 km/h (4 mph). The first conventional completely electrified railway mainline was the 106 km Valtellina line in Italy that was opened on 4 September 1902. At first, all electric railways used direct current but, in 1904, the Stubaital Line in Austria opened with alternating current
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