Quarry Restoration case studies
out of 20
Post on 22-Nov-2014
DESCRIPTIONA commercial pdf that includes some nice detail on 3 case studies of quarry restoration that give a breadth of post quarrying uses. Very useful for Geography GCSE rocks and landscape
- 1. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use What happens to quarries after the mineral extraction has ended? One of the key sustainability issues relating to quarries is what happens to them at the end of their working life as part of the changing landscape
- 2. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use nabilit Definitions of Sustainability There is abundant evidence that humanity is using up the earths resources at a rate that will deplete them much too quickly, and in the process is causing unacceptable levels of pollution which destroys natural habitats and eco systems. Sustainability is a very broad term and is very difficult to satisfactorily define. The most widely accepted definition was proposed by the United Nations in 1987, Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This is developed further to cover environmental, social and economic demands, the 3 pillars of sustainability. Since 1987, the issue has gained momentum as evidence of the effects of global warming and climate change has come to be seen as an urgent threat to life on earth. In response, governments are seeking to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to increase recycling, biodiversity, and the generation of renewable energy by wind, solar and other means.
- 3. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Sustainability policy Most companies have a Sustainability Policy. Here is a typical example We are committed to operating sustainability. To achieve this, we have developed a sustainability policy covering our UK operations. As a minimum, we will: comply with all legislation, regulations and codes of practice relevant to our operations implement effective management systems that will aid the achievement of our objectives. We also aim to achieve the core goals within the cornerstones of sustainability, environmental improvement, employee welfare, thriving communities and economic development. To achieve environmental improvement we will: reduce consumption of fossil fuels and emissions of carbon dioxide per unit of production throughout the extraction, manufacturing and delivery of our products protect and enhance biodiversity and geo-diversity through site selection, site management and restoration increase the recovery and recycling of construction, demolition and other waste products develop products that contribute to sustainable development reduce adverse impacts on land, air and water, and where possible seek positive benefits and opportunities for the environment. To ensure employee welfare and development we will: minimise the risks of injuries and work-related ill health to employees through effective health and safety management ensure all employees are treated equally and with respect engage proactively with employees to fully develop their potential To promote thriving communities we will: liaise with local communities throughout our business activities support local communities through provision of employment and other initiatives To facilitate sustainable economic development we will: continue to be committed to delivering a quality product, efficiently and profitably manage our supply chain to ensure that through proactive engagement it will promote sustainability and ethical procurement. In support of our policy we will engage with our investors, customers, business partners and other stakeholders in promoting sustainable development.
- 4. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Restoration of land that has been quarried is one of the great skills of the modern quarrying industry. Extraction of minerals is a temporary land use that may last no longer than ten years for sand and gravel. Restoration is usually phased through the life of a site and may involve a return to agriculture. It may alternatively offer a one-off opportunity for change to a new use that benefits wildlife and the community.
- 5. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use natural revegetation nature conservation land fill leisure and recreation (water sports, rock climbing, marinas, caravan parks) agriculture residential and other buildings other industrial uses Modern planning applications for quarries must include detailed proposals for the afteruse of the quarry if planning permission is granted. This can be changed later, but the original proposals must be achievable and any change would need a new planning application. However, policy that seeks to preserve forever particular habitats and landform is likely to fail in response to climate change and changing land management practices.
- 6. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Examples of some exhausted sand and gravel quarries restored as wetland sites for nature conservation and recreational purposes e.g. bird watching Families with children visiting a wetland site and exploring flora and fauna
- 7. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Further examples of restoration Nosterfield Nature Reserve, North Yorkshire was formerly a sand and gravel quarry. Now it is a habitat for over 200 species of bird, including 32 different types of wader, 200 species of plants and insects and 20 different types of butterfly. Left picture shows Nosterfield Quarry in the process of restoration with recent planting of trees on site. Tiddenfoot Waterside Park - Leighton Buzzard is situated on a former sand quarry that now forms an eight-acre lake. A mosaic of habitats including acid grassland to the north, wild flower meadow to the south and a perimeter woodland belt surrounds the lake
- 8. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Restoration to Nature Conservation A chalk pit restored to a nature reserve, with rare and endangered calcareous grassland Butterflies return to a restored chalk site
- 9. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use The landscape and its biodiversity is not natural - it is the product of human management over thousands of years (ever since we started cutting down the forests 10,000 years ago). Even the forest that remains has probably been replanted relatively recently and there are only tiny fragments of original unmanaged forest or landscape remaining. An example of a managed landscape is that of the Norfolk Broads National Park. This is a beautiful area of lakes and waterways - all the result of peat extraction! 700+ Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are due to quarrying A co-ordinated approach to ecological recording, management and restoration is what is required to ensure maximum biodiversity value
- 10. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Examples of Best Practice Stone quarry Stoney Cove, Leicestershire Sand and gravel pits Cotswold Water Park Clay pit Eden Project, Cornwall These are among the best examples in the world of how quarries can be put to good use when the mineral reserves are exhausted. They all include nature conservation and leisure uses and are explored in detail on the following slides.
- 11. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Stoney Cove, Leicestershire Is now used by 50,000 visitors per year
- 12. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Stoney Cove a Restored Granite Quarry One of the finest examples of restoration to leisure use of an old quarry is Stoney Cove. Extraction of granite ended in 1958 and the quarry rapidly filled up with spring water. By 1963 it had become the National Diving Centre and is now the largest inland dive site in the UK attracting more than 50,000 visitors per year. The site is used as a scuba diving training centre where people can learn to dive safely and experienced divers can practice. To make it more interesting some unusual under water attractions have been brought in such as such as a sunken helicopter, galleon, old army vehicles and even an aeroplane. Pictures show very old photos of the quarry workings and an aerial shot of the site now.
- 13. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Stoney Cove was once a working granite quarry and now is the largest inland dive site in the UK attracting more than 50,000 people every year
- 14. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use The photos show people working the quarry many years ago ... ...and making use of the site now.
- 15. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use The quarry many years ago The quarry today from the same view
- 16. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Cotswold Water Park Restored and Gravel Pits Sand and gravel often occurs in river flood plains, so the workings quickly fill with water when extraction is finished. Because of this connection with the natural water table these pits are not suitable for landfill as the groundwater would be quickly polluted. They are, however, ideal for recreational facilities for fishing, boating and picnicking. Soft sands replace sharp sides with steep edges and beaches can be created. An excellent example is the Cotswold Water Park near Gloucester. Sand and gravel has been worked for over 50 years and still continues today. The old pits have flooded naturally as they lie on the river Thames flood plain, and have been put to many different uses within the 40 sq. Mile park and its 140 lakes. The park includes nature reserves, restaurants, health clubs, and waterside homes and the facilities include everything from fishing, walking and bird watching to water skiing, wind surfing, kayaking and paintballing. None of this would have been possible if the sand and gravel had not been extracted to create all the lakes.
- 17. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Cotswold Water Park (the site of old sand and gravel workings) A lakeside beach Boat jetty Canada Geese A new lakeside home
- 18. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use The Eden Project a Restored Clay Pit Clay is impermeable, which means that water cannot flow through it as it can through sand and gravel. This means that following extraction of clay for the manufacture of bricks, pottery etc. The clay pits are very useful for waste disposal as the clay prevents pollution of the ground water. Even household waste can be land filled in clay pits. As the waste rots it produces methane gas, and if the site is properly engineered this can be collected and used either to power kilns at an adjacent brick works or to generate electricity for as long as 40 or 50 years. Once filled in, the site may be landscaped and restored to agriculture with topsoil or even used to build houses. An example of an alternative use of a clay pit is the Eden Project in Cornwall. The clay was used to make pottery and this clay pit has now been used to create giant greenhouses called Biomes, in which several habitats from around the world have been recreated including Mediterranean climates and a Rain Forest.
- 19. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use The Eden Project, Cornwall Photos by Ben Foster The Eden Project in Cornwall shows the transformation of an old china clay pit into a scientific and tourist attraction of international fame. There are even new plans to create a geothermal power plant, to generate natural renewable energy from rocks deep below ground. This could replace a conventional nuclear power plant for at least 50 years.
- 20. Sustainability Quarry Restoration, Reclamation & Re-use Websites for research www.stoneycove.com www.waterpark.org www.edenproject.com www.aggregate.com www.virtualquarry.co.uk www.bgs.ac.uk www.heidelbergcement.com www.afterminerals.com
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