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Download Quality Drying of Softwood Lumber Guidebook-Checklist Drying of Softwood Lumber Guidebook–Checklist Michael R. Milota R. Sidney Boone Jeanne D. Danielson Dean W. Huber Lumber Drying

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  • United StatesDepartment ofAgriculture

    Forest Service

    ForestProductsLaboratory

    State andPrivateForestry

    GeneralTechnicalReportFPL-IMP-GTR-1

    Quality Drying ofSoftwood LumberGuidebookChecklistMichael R. MilotaR. Sidney BooneJeanne D. DanielsonDean W. Huber

    Lumber Drying Program

  • Contents

    Page

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    GuidebookChecklist

    Rating System

    Overviewing the Kilns

    Studying One Kiln

    Monitoring the Effects of Changes

    Using the Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Guidebook for Quality Drying of

    Softwood Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Standard Operating Practices

    Control Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Fan Deck and Kiln Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Yard Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Inside an Empty Kiln

    While Preparing Charges and Loading

    the Kiln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    During Kiln Startup and Operation . . . . . . .

    After Drying Is Completed . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Evaluate Stacking and Its Effect

    on Drying Quality

    Drying Defects and Drying Problems

    Reported

    Checklist for Quality Drying of

    Softwood Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Standard Operating Practices . . . . . . . . . .

    Control Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Fan Deck and Kiln Roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Yard Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Inside an Empty Kiln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    While Preparing Charges and

    Loading the Kiln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    During Kiln Startup and Operation . . . . . .

    After Drying Is Completed . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Evaluate Stacking and Its Effect

    on Drying Quality

    Drying Defects and Drying Problems

    Reported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Appendix 1Summary Checklist for

    Quality Drying of Softwood Lumber . . . . . .

    Appendix 2Checklist Arranged by

    Drying System Components . . . . . . . . . . .

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    Abstract

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended toincrease awareness of the lumber drying system as acritical component in the manufacture of qualitylumber. One objective of the program is to provideeasy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use tomaintain an efficient kiln operation and thereforecontribute to lumber drying quality. This report is onecomponent of the IMPROVE Program. It contains aguidebookchecklist for drying quality softwood thatkiln operators or management can use to readilyevaluate how well their operations rate on thosefactors that most strongly affect drying quality, withparticular emphasis on kiln operation and mainte-nance and lumber handling. Appendix 1 contains asummary checklist for easy duplication and filing.Appendix 2 contains the same checklist items;however, the information is arranged by dryingsystem components for convenience in checkingindividual components.

    Acknowledgment

    The IMPROVE program is a cooperative effort ofthe Forest Products Laboratory and State & PrivateForestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, ForestService. In addition, several universities, currentlyOregon State University and the University of Wis-consin, are cooperating on this project.

    September 1991______________________________________________________________________________

    Milota, Michael, R.; Boone, R. Sidney; Danielson, Jeanne D.;Huber, Dean W. 1991. Quality Drying of Softwood Lumber:Guidebook and Checklist.

    Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-IMP-GTR-1. Madison, WI: U.S. Departmentof Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 50 p.

    A limited number of free copies of this publication are available tothe public from the Forest Products Laboratory, One GiffordPinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53705-2398. Laboratory publicationsare sent to more than 1,000 libraries in the United States andelsewhere.

    The Forest Products Laboratory is maintained in cooperation withthe University of Wisconsin.

  • 1

    Introduction

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intendedto increase awareness of the lumber drying systemas a critical component in the manufacture of qualitylumber. The goals of the program are to helpsawmill personnel improve lumber drying quality byidentifying sources of drying losses, both grade andvolume. Operation of the dry kiln is only one factorthat determines lumber drying quality. Each step ofthe lumber manufacturing process affects lumberdrying qualityfrom the time logs are felled in thewoods until the lumber leaves the unstacker afterdrying. The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program isdesigned to systematically evaluate the dryingoperation and identify areas contributing to poorlumber product quality, both in the drying operationstage and at every prior stage of lumber manufac-ture. Therefore, causes of drying quality losses canbe corrected at their source, rather than trying tocompensate for them in the kiln.

    A package of analytical tools for the IMPROVEprogram is under development. These tools willmeasure and improve processing efficiency andproduct quality in sawmills, veneer mills, and ply-wood plants. Methods will be provided to evaluatehow effectively logs are being converted into endproducts, to identify opportunities to increaseproduct yield and value, and to predict the results ofproposed improvements.

    One objective of the IMPROVE Lumber DryingProgram is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kilnoperator can use routinely in daily work around thekilns without having to perform special studies or

    interfering with production. To help fulfill this objec-tive, this report contains a complete guidebookchecklist for drying quality softwood lumber. Theguidebook explains the importance of each item onthe checklist and describes how to evaluate it. Ifquestions arise while using the checklist, you canrefer to the guidebook for a detailed explanation.The guidebook also provides a quick reference ondrying quality. Kiln operators can use the checklistto readily evaluate how well their operations rate onthose factors that most strongly affect drying quality.Particular emphasis is given to kiln operation as wellas maintenance and lumber handling. In addition tothe guidebook and checklist, Appendix 1 contains asummary checklist for easy duplication and filing.Appendix 2 contains the same checklist items butlisted according to drying system components forconvenience in checking individual components.

    The guidebookchecklist is intended to be used witheither steam-heated or direct-fired kilns. It is notpractical or our intent to cover all the detailedcomponents of the lumber drying system. Weencourage you to use the guidebookchecklist andadapt it to your individual situations. Many othermaintenance and operating factors are also impor-tant, but these do not have as direct a bearing ondrying quality, although they should not be ne-glected. Chapter 4 of the "Dry Kiln OperatorsManual" (DKOM)1 contains maintenance checklistsand discusses many factors of kiln maintenance.Kiln manufacturers can also supply maintenancechecklists and additional information.

    1USDA. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. Agric. Handb. 188.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

    GuidebookChecklist

    Michael R. Milota, Assistant ProfessorOregon State UniversityCorvallis, Oregon

    R. Sidney Boone, Research Forest Products TechnologistJeanne D. Danielson, Supervisory Research Forest Products TechnologistForest Products LaboratoryMadison, Wisconsin

    Dean W. Huber, Program Manager, Forest Products Utilization and MarketingState & Private Forestry, Region 5San Francisco, California

    Quality Drying of Softwood Lumber

  • 2

    GuidebookChecklist

    The guidebookchecklist can be used three ways:(1) to make an overview of the entire kiln operation;(2) to closely check or monitor a particular kiln that issuspected of causing drying problems; and (3) tomonitor the effects of improvements by providing abaseline for later comparison.

    The checklist is a working tool, and to get the mostvalue from it, you must physically examine variousequipment and systems around the kiln. Only byactually observing the items on the checklist can youaccurately assess your kiln operation. The checklistis arranged so that items can be checked together ateach location around the kiln. For example, allobservations of valves and controls normally foundin the control room are listed together on the check-list, and checks of stacking and stickering are doneat the dry end. A shortened version or summary ofthe checklist (without the rating ke

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