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QCC & 7 Quality Control Tools For Problem Solvings

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MODULE 1 UNDERSTANDING QC CIRCLE

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Overview What are Quality Circles? How Do Quality Circles Work? How Can They be Used in an Organization?

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What is a Quality Circle?Voluntary groups of employees who work on similar tasks or share an area of responsibility They agree to meet on a regular basis to discuss & solve problems related to work. They operate on the principle that employee participation in decision-making and problemdecisionproblemsolving improves the quality of workPlan Do Check Act

How Do Quality Circles Work? Characteristics Volunteers Set Rules and Priorities Decisions made by Consensus Use of organized approaches to Problem-SolvingPlan Do Check Act

How Do Quality Circles Work? All members of a Circle need to receive training Members need to be empowered Members need to have the support of Senior Management

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How Can They be Used in an Organization? Plan

Increase Productivity Improve Quality Boost Employee Morale Increase in employee quality consciousness Problem prevention becomes habitual Promotion of employee motivation Improvement in the human relations More effective company communicationDo Check Act

How Can They be Used in an Organization?

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More active job involvement Utilization of problem solving capabilities Contribution to personnel development Encouragement of teamwork Improvement of work environment Development of safety awareness Control and improvement of quality Productivity improvement Increased job securityDo Check Act

Problems with Quality Circles Inadequate Training Unsure of Purpose Not truly Voluntary Lack of Management Interest Quality Circles are not really empowered to make decisions.Do Check Act

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MODULE 2 DATA COLLECTIONPlan Do Check Act

CATEGORIES OF DATAPrimary Data Secondary Data

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PRIMARY DATAThe data, which are collected from the units or individual respondents directly for the purpose of certain study or information. Example: If an experiment is conducted to know the effect of fertilizer doses on the yield OR the effect of a drug on the patients, the observation taken on each plot or patient constitute the primary data.Plan Do Check Act

SECONDARY DATAThe data, which had been collected by certain people or agency, and statistically treated. Now the information contained in it is used again from records, processed and statistically analyzed to extract some information for other purpose.Plan Do Check Act

SECONDARY DATAExample: Secondary data is obtained from year books, census report, survey reports, official reports or reported experimental findings.

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ANALYSIS OF DATAOne of the most important objectives is to process the observed data and transform it to a form most suitable for decision making.

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DATA PROCESSINGBefore tabulation of primary data, it should be edited for: Plan

Completeness Consistency Accuracy HomogeneityDo Check Act

ANALYSIS OF DATA The measures of central tendency and dispersion are parts of data analysis along with the estimation and testing of hypothesis: Plan

Mean Median Mode Standard deviationDo Check Act

ANALYSIS OF DATA The data: 4,5,5,4,8,4,3,7.

Mean Median Mode Standard deviation RangePlan Do Check Act

ANALYSIS OF DATA The data: 4,5,5,4,8,4,3,7. Mean = 4+5+5+4+8+4+3+7 8 Mean = 40/8 = 5 Median = 3,4,4,4,5,5,7,8 ( Select Two centered Data) Median = ( 4+5)/2 = 4.5 ModePlan Do Check

= 3,4,4,4,5,5,7,8 = 4 (Most Frequently Occurring Number)Act

ANALYSIS OF DATA The data: 4,5,5,4,8,4,3,7. Standard deviation = 1.69(X-Bar X)2 = ( n 1)

Range = Max Min =83=5Plan Do Check Act

P Value = 0.1377 Data is Normal Median =4.5 This tool is given free

Mean = 5

Range = 5

Mode = 4

STD Dev=1.69

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MODULE 3The Basic 7 Quality Tools

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The Basic 7 Quality Tools.Ishikawa believed that 90% of all quality problems could be solved through the use of the 7 tools listed below:

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Frequency Diagrams ( Histograms ) Cause and Effect (Ishikawa) Diagrams Check Sheets Pareto diagrams Flowcharts Scatter Diagrams Control ChartsDo Check Act

Where did the Basic Seven come from?Kaoru Ishikawa Known for Democratizing Statistics The Basic Seven Tools made statistical analysis less complicated for the average person Good Visual Aids make statistical and quality control more comprehensible.Plan Do Check Act

Fishbone Diagrams No statistics involved Maps out a process/problem Makes improvement easier Looks like a Fish SkeletonPlan Do Check Act

Fishbone DiagramsArea A4 1 2 3 5 6

Area B1 2 3

4 5 6

Possible Causes4 5 6 3 2 1 6 3 5 2 4 1

PROBLEM (EFFECT)

Area CPlan Do Check

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Fishbone Diagrams Step 1 - Identify the Problem Step 2 - Draw spine and bones Step 3 - Identify different areas where problems may arise from Step 4 - Identify what these specific causes could be Step 5 Use the finished diagram to brainstorm solutions to the main problems.Plan Do Check Act

Fishbone DiagramsMachinesSolder GunSize

ManpowerSkill Training

Heat sink

Physical limits

Power Source

Bad Solder JointsTechniqueManual

Terminals Flux Stripping Solder Wire Gauge

MethodsPlan Do Check

MaterialsAct

In the above example, Ive added some causes and some common categories know as the 4 Ms Machines, Manpower, Methods and Materials. How do we arrive at the possible causes? The best (and most common) method is brainstorming. This generates a large number of ideas in a short period of time. Once the diagram is complete, then we can continue with the evaluation. We obviously can not tackle all the problems at once because there are too many and besides some will have such small effects that they will not be worth bothering about.Plan Do Check Act

Fishbone DiagramsMachinesSolder GunSize

ManpowerSkill Training

Heat sink

Physical limits

Power Source

Bad Solder JointsTechniqueManual

Terminals Flux Stripping Solder Wire Gauge

MethodsPlan Do Check

MaterialsAct

Fishbone On thisDiagrams the causes have been diagram, three of highlighted.These are thought to be the most important, and the ones to tackle. WHY? There are a number of ways of choosing the front runners. We could design a series of experiments to determine the biggest influence, OR We could use existing data or experience, OR We could make a judgement purely on opinionPlan Do Check Act

CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM - Example

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WORKSHOP & PRESENTATION

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HISTOGRAMWHAT IT IS?Histograms are effective Q.C. tools which are used in the analysis of data. They are used as a check on specific process parameters to determine where the greatest amount of variation occurs in the process, or to determine if process specifications are exceeded. This statistical method does not prove that a process is in a state of control. Nonetheless, histograms alone have been used to solve many problems in quality control.Plan Do Check Act

HISTOGRAM ANALYSIS How well is the histogram centered?

The centering of the data provides information on the process aim about some mean or nominal value. How wide is the histogram?

Looking at histogram width defines the variability of the process about the aim.Plan Do Check Act

HISTOGRAM ANALYSISWhat is the shape of the histogram? Remember that the data is expected to form a normal or bell-shaped curve. Any significant change or anomaly usually indicates that there is something going on in the process which is causing the quality problem.Plan Do Check Act

NORMAL

Depicted by a bell-shaped curve Most frequent measurement appears as center of distribution Less frequent measurements taper gradually at both ends of distribution Indicates that a process is running normally (only common causes are present).Plan Do Check Act

BI-MODAL

Distribution appears to have two peaks May indicate that data from more than one process are mixed together Materials may come from two separate vendors Samples may have come from two separate machines.Plan Do Check Act

CLIFF-TYPE

Appears to end sharply or abruptly at one end Indicates possible sorting or inspection of non-conforming parts.Plan Do Check Act

SAWTOOTHEDAlso commonly referred to as a comb distribution, appears as an alternating jagged pattern Often indicates a measuring problem Improper gage readings Gage not sensitive enough for readings.

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SKEWEDPositively Skewed Negatively Skewed

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Excercise Construct an Histogram for the four distribution from the set data Plot Data. Can you determine the type of distribution from the Histogram? Can you determine the bimodal from the Histogram?

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Dist 1

Dist 2

This tool is given free

Dist 3

Dist 4

Measurements of 50 items from process XYZ 147 131 198 190 165 170 178 157 168 145Plan Do

179 137 142 161 155 12