Putting Into Context the Value of UD_p21516tip

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<ul><li><p>AR413A: Planning 2 Lecture Notes Putting into Context the Value of Urban Design Arch. Eduardo F. Bober, Jr. </p><p>Urban Design [definition review] </p><p>- the art of creating and shaping cities and towns, giving form and character through the design of public spaces </p><p>- involves arrangement of public spaces, buildings, transport systems, services, amenities - traditionally a subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, architecture - designing of cities without designing buildings(Barnett) - the art of making places (Cowan) - CONNECTS: </p><p>o people and places o movement and urban form o natural and built environment </p><p>- TRANSCENDS: o planning and transportation policy o building and landscape design o engineering o development economics </p><p>Urban Design [relation to planning] </p><p>- the element in the planning process that is concerned with finding an appropriate physical framework for human activities in cities. </p><p>Urban Design [theory] </p><p>- Urban design theory deals primarily with the planning and design of the public realm public realm = public space, public domain </p><p>Urban Design [scope: public realm] </p></li><li><p>Urban Design [scope: private spaces] </p><p>- Some aspects private spaces contribute to defining public spaces: o building facades o private gardens o front yards/backyards </p><p>- These can be manipulated or controlled through prospective development/ design guidelines </p><p>Urban Design Controls </p><p> Incentive Zoning </p><p>- allowing builders and developers more space if they provide certain desirable features and </p><p>amenities such as plazas, arcades, and other open spaces </p></li><li><p> Cluster Zoning </p><p>- creating special zoning policies and regulations for medium to large sized controlled </p><p>developments </p><p> Floor Area Ratio (FAR) - The proportions between </p><p>the built area and the lot </p><p>area. </p><p> Floor Space Index (FSI) </p><p>- established by dividing the area of the total floor space of the buildings by the site area, </p><p>including half the area of any roads adjoining it. </p><p> Architectural Guidelines </p><p>- building heights </p><p>- setbacks </p><p>- building bulk </p><p>- architectural character </p></li><li><p>Urban Design [scale] </p><p>- The scale of urban design work ranges from city/town plans to as detailed as street furniture and </p><p>environmental art </p><p>Creates a </p><p>sense of </p><p>place </p><p>(place-</p><p>making) </p><p>Urban Design [examples of projects] </p><p>o streetscapes </p><p>o mixed-use redevelopment </p><p>o parks and open spaces </p><p>o environmental graphics/way-finding </p><p>o environmental art </p><p>o urban renewal </p><p>o historic preservation </p><p>o township creation </p><p>o waterfront developments </p><p>o environmental lighting </p></li><li><p>Urban Design [best practices] </p><p>- The best practices in UD can be associated with the following concepts/movements: </p><p> new urbanism </p><p> landscape urbanism </p><p> smart growth </p><p> sustainable street network </p><p> heritage conservation </p><p> transit-oriented development (TOD) Common Themes </p><p> Character, image and response to context places which have their own character and which are well related to their context </p><p> Spatial coherence and townscape structure buildings which have a collective value and create </p><p>places which are distinctive and understandable </p><p> Building design quality and external appearance buildings which are designed to be visually </p><p>appropriate, attractive and fit for purpose providing architectural quality </p><p> Movement, linkages, permeability and accessibility developments and places which support good </p><p>connections and which are well integrated </p><p> Security and safety designing places which are inherently safe in design </p><p> Mixed-use, density and diversity promoting uses which add to vitality and variety </p><p> Adaptability and flexibility ensuring places and buildings are robust </p><p> Sustainability and eco-design buildings and schemes which are more energy efficient </p><p> Design process and ongoing maintenance and management ensuring an effective design process </p><p>starting with good analysis and ensuring ongoing care is considered </p><p> Economic Value of Urban Design [premise] </p><p>- Good urban design can be a factor for economic growth and regeneration o Assessment of what constitutes good design (refer to sample) o Identification of potential benefits o Formulating an overview of an impact assessment framework </p><p>Economic Value [defined] </p><p>o represents a measure of profit from a development o additional Gross Value Added created o measure of welfare or utility which incorporates economic, social and environmental </p><p>considerations </p><p> good design can be seen as a public good non-rival non-excludable </p></li><li><p> Good urban design adds economic value by: </p><p>o producing high returns on investments (good rental returns and enhanced capital values) o placing developments above local competition at little cost o responding to occupier demand o helping to deliver more lettable area (higher densities) o reducing management, maintenance, energy and security costs o contributing to more contented and productive work forces o supporting the life-giving mixed-use elements in developments o creating an urban regeneration and place marketing divided o differentiating places and raising their prestige o opening up investment opportunities, raising confidence in development opportunities and </p><p>attracting grant monies o reducing the cost to the public purse of rectifying urban design mistakes </p><p> Good urban design adds social and environmental value by: </p><p>o creating well connected, inclusive and accessible new places o distributing mixed-use environments with a broad range of facilities and amenities </p><p>available to all delivering development sensitive to its context o enhancing the sense of safety and security within and beyond developments </p></li><li><p>Economic Value of Urban Design [rationale for government intervention in promoting good urban design] </p><p> based upon issues on equity and unequal distribution of wealth </p><p> economic efficiency, prevention of market failures </p><p> welfare of society health and environmental impacts </p><p> investments in regeneration to reverse physical and social decay, consequently reversing </p><p>economic decline. Returns on investments would be: </p><p>o economic job creation, business formation, market renewal </p><p>o social improved community facilities, health, </p><p>o environmental sustainability, health </p><p> Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits </p><p>Strong evidence of relationship to design </p><p> Provides land savings and better efficiency in the use of space </p><p> Utilizes infrastructure more effectively </p><p> Attracts additional visitors and activity </p><p> Helps achieve greater efficiency in use of resources </p><p> Improves natural surveillance and security </p><p> Increases choice and access to facilities and amenities </p><p> Better meets the needs of users </p><p> Encourages greater use of public space </p><p> Increases participation in community and cultural activities </p><p> Lowers use of car for local trips </p><p> Encourages walking and cycling </p><p>Evidence of relationship to design </p><p> Increase viability of local facilities and businesses </p><p> Positive impact on the image of an area </p><p> Increases commercial property values </p><p> Improves staff productivity and satisfaction </p><p> Reduces whole life costs, including management and security costs </p><p> Improves long-term economic performance of an area </p><p> Enhances corporate image/brand </p><p> Promotes greater levels of physical activity </p><p> Increases diversity and duration of use of public space </p><p> Helps to improve social relations and cohesion </p><p> Enhances convenience </p><p> Encourages commitment to undertaking further improvements </p><p> Improves sense of personal safety </p><p> Positive impact on physical and mental </p><p> Reduces harmful emissions and pollutants </p><p> Improved energy efficiency and sustainability </p><p> Reduces reliance on vehicular transport </p><p> Lowers level of energy consumption </p></li><li><p> Contributes to area revitalization/regeneration </p><p> Improves business performance and competiveness </p><p> Increases residential property values </p><p> Leads to greater land values </p><p> Increases vitality of local businesses </p><p>health </p><p> Reduces levels of crime and fear of crime </p><p> Helps to improve patient recovery rates </p><p> Increases sense of community </p><p> Assists in fostering social engagement and participation </p><p>Costs of good design </p><p>o more challenging or complicated building format height/massing </p><p>o increased specification of construction and finish materials </p><p>o more sophisticated or complex construction methods </p><p>o higher environmental standards and better environmental performances </p><p>o more open spaces or streets within the scheme </p><p>o more or better infrastructure </p><p>o time to get design right </p><p>o skills namely the cost of using suitably qualified designers </p><p>o cultural change and initial time costs as developers leave their comfort zones </p><p>Beneficiaries of good design </p><p>o Investors </p><p> returns on investments </p><p> occupier demand </p><p>o Developers </p><p> investors attracted </p><p> company image </p><p> returns on investments </p><p>o Designers </p><p> work </p><p> prestige </p><p>o Occupiers </p><p> better performance </p><p> impression clients/guests </p><p> health &amp; satisfaction </p><p>o Everyday users/society </p><p> regeneration </p></li><li><p> new &amp; retained jobs </p><p> better environment </p><p>o Public authorities </p><p> meeting obligations </p><p> ripple effect </p><p>FOR THE ACTIVITY THIS WEEK AND NEXT WEEK </p><p>(Please refer to the Activity Guide posted in the e_group) </p></li></ul>