psychology sleep altered states of consciousness

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  • Slide 1
  • PSYCHOLOGY SLEEP Altered States of Consciousness
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  • 2 Consciousness & Information Processing The unconscious mind processes information simultaneously on multiple tracks, while the conscious mind processes information sequentially. Conscious mind Unconscious mind
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  • The Preconscious Level Preconscious thought is stored knowledge that is retrievable into conscious awareness. The Nonconscious Level The nonconscious level refers to bodily processes, such as the growing of hair, of which we are not aware. The Unconscious Level Information stored in the unconscious level is unavailable to awareness under most circumstances. Altered States of Consciousness In altered states of consciousness, a persons sense of self or sense of the world changes. Examples: sleep and hypnosis Different Levels of Consciousness
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  • 5 Sleep & Dreams Sleep the irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb. Mysteries about sleep and dreams have just started unraveling in sleep laboratories around the world.
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  • Sleep & Dreams Disc Jockey Peter Tripp Disc Jockey Peter Tripp Sleep is a state of altered consciousness Sleep is a state of altered consciousness Consciousness a state of awareness, including a persons feelings, sensations, ideas and perceptions Consciousness a state of awareness, including a persons feelings, sensations, ideas and perceptions Consciousness ranges from alertness to non- alertness Consciousness ranges from alertness to non- alertness Sleep has been difficult to study until recently Sleep has been difficult to study until recently EEG electroencephalograph records electrical activity in the brain EEG electroencephalograph records electrical activity in the brain
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  • Why do we sleep? Sleep is characterized by unresponsiveness to the environment and usually limited physical mobility. Sleep is characterized by unresponsiveness to the environment and usually limited physical mobility. Some people believe sleep is used to recharge their batteries. Some people believe sleep is used to recharge their batteries. Others believe sleep is a primitive hibernation to conserve energy. Others believe sleep is a primitive hibernation to conserve energy. Some believe we slept at night to stay out of harms way. Some believe we slept at night to stay out of harms way. Some researchers believe we sleep to clear our minds and dream. Some researchers believe we sleep to clear our minds and dream.
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  • 9 Sleep Theories 1.Sleep Protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harms way. 2.Sleep Recuperates: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue. 3.Sleep Helps Remembering: Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories. 4.Sleep and Growth: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less.
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  • People need sleep to revive the tired body and build up resistance to infection. Sleep may help people recover from stress and consolidate memories. REM sleep seems to help animals and people learn, remember, and retain information. REM sleep is when we have the most vivid dreams. People dream in color and in black and white. People seem to dream in real time. People do not always remember their dreams. Dreams The Importance of Sleep and Dreams Sigmund Freud theorized that dreams reflect a persons unconscious wishes and urges. He also believed people dream in symbols as a way to deal with painful material they cannot otherwise deal with consciously. The Freudian View
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  • 11 Measuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Sleep Stages Hank Morgan/ Rainbow
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  • Stages of Sleep As you sleep several things happen: As you sleep several things happen: Body temperature decreases Body temperature decreases Pulse rate drops Pulse rate drops Eyes close Eyes close Body may twitch and eyes may roll Body may twitch and eyes may roll Brief visual images flash across your mind Brief visual images flash across your mind EEG shows alpha waves which are associated with absence of concentrated thought & relaxation. EEG shows alpha waves which are associated with absence of concentrated thought & relaxation.
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  • 13 During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity. Sleep Stages 1-2 Theta Waves
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  • Early Stages of Sleep Stage 1 Stage 1 Pulse slows more and muscles relax Pulse slows more and muscles relax Breathing becomes uneven and brain waves grow irregular. Breathing becomes uneven and brain waves grow irregular. Lasts up to 10 minutes Lasts up to 10 minutes If awakened you would report that you were just drifting If awakened you would report that you were just drifting
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  • Early Stages of Sleep Stage II Stage II Eyes roll slowly from side to side Eyes roll slowly from side to side Lasts about 30 minutes Lasts about 30 minutes Stage III Stage III Large amplitude delta waves begin to sweep your brain every second. Large amplitude delta waves begin to sweep your brain every second.
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  • 16 During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps). Sleep Stages 3-4
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  • Later Stages of Sleep Stage IV is the deepest stage of all. Stage IV is the deepest stage of all. Hard to wake and will be disoriented if awakened Hard to wake and will be disoriented if awakened Talking, sleepwalking & bedwetting occur during this stage with no memory Talking, sleepwalking & bedwetting occur during this stage with no memory
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  • REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM)- active sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM)- active sleep Pulse & breathing become irregular Pulse & breathing become irregular Adrenal & sexual hormone levels rise Adrenal & sexual hormone levels rise Face & fingers twitch while large muscles are paralyzed Face & fingers twitch while large muscles are paralyzed Brain waves similar to that of an awake person Brain waves similar to that of an awake person Lasts 15-45 minutes Lasts 15-45 minutes Entire sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes Entire sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes Stage IV sleep decreases with each cycle while REM sleep increases until you wake up Stage IV sleep decreases with each cycle while REM sleep increases until you wake up
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  • 19 Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state. A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams.
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  • Brain Waves During Sleep
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  • Frequency of Sleep Stages
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  • 22 90-Minute Cycles During Sleep With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases.
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  • How Much Sleep? Amount needed varies considerably Amount needed varies considerably Newborns sleep up to 16 hours while 70 years and older may sleep only 5 hours Newborns sleep up to 16 hours while 70 years and older may sleep only 5 hours Circadian rhythm biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses during the day Circadian rhythm biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses during the day Missing sleep disrupts this rhythm (jet lag) Missing sleep disrupts this rhythm (jet lag)
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  • Sleep Disorders Insomnia Insomnia Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea Narcolepsy Narcolepsy Nightmares & Night Terrors Nightmares & Night Terrors Sleepwalking & Sleep Talking Sleepwalking & Sleep Talking
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  • 27 Why do we sleep? We spend one-third of our lives sleeping. If an individual remains awake for several days, they deteriorate in terms of immune function, concentration, and accidents. Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./ Corbis
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  • 28 Sleep Deprivation 1.Fatigue and subsequent death. 2.Impaired concentration. 3.Emotional irritability. 4.Depressed immune system. 5.Greater vulnerability.
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  • Insomnia Insomnia a prolonged and usually abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep Insomnia a prolonged and usually abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep Do not feel rested the next day Do not feel rested the next day Insomnia has many causes including anxiety, depression, alcohol and drug use Insomnia has many causes including anxiety, depression, alcohol and drug use
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  • 30 Accidents Frequency of accidents increase with loss of sleep
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  • Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while sleeping Sleep Apnea a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while sleeping Identified by snoring that lasts 10-15 seconds then ends suddenly wi

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