psy210 death and dying
Post on 05-Dec-2014
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DESCRIPTIONHuman Development. Goes over grieving process, hospice, funeral cost, dealing with your own death, etc.
- 1. Death and DyingSarah Hammett, Ruth Dennison,and Roman Liskevich
2. Death No one wants to die. Even people who want to goto heaven dont want to die to get there. And yetdeath is the destination we all share. No one hasever escaped it. And that is as it should be, becauseDeath is very likely the single invention of Life. It isLifes change agent. It clears out the out the old tomake way for the new. Steve Jobs 3. Death and Dying As medicine progressed there were newer guidelines forbeing termed dead. Not having a heartbeat and respiration didnt qualify someone forbeing dead. New technology allowed a person to have his his/her heart andcirculatory system to be sustained on a ventilator and feeding tubes togive nutrients to the individual. Sometimes people who were plugged up to these machines neverregained consciousness, so we had to find a new term for being dead. 4. What is Death In the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, death wasdefined as the separation of the soul and the body. The latest definition of death is three times as long and themore we learn about death the harder it gets to defining it About three centuries ago it was fairly simple to determineif someone was dead. If someone was thought to have died the family would have called thepriest to come and make sure. The priest would come and do some simple tests like put a mirrorright by their mouth see if it clouded up by breathing If the family needed further proof he would put feather on the nose tosee if it moved. O things were so simple back in the day. 5. Brain Death Doctors started to use terms like persistent vegetativestate, and irreversible coma to describe people who hadbeen in some kind of traumatic injury were they had braindamage that was irreversible. Medicine could now keep people alive when their own braincouldnt, but a persons consciousness , his personality wasgone forever Brain death or the irreversible end of all brain activity due tototal necrosis of the the cerebral neurons following loss ofbrain oxygenation. 6. Cause of Brain Death Technically everybody dies of brain death, a young personmight suffer a gunshot to the brain or an older person mightsuffer a stroke and doesnt get oxygen to the brain,eventually we all die of brain death. The brain can be without oxygen for six minutes after theheart stops, severe brain damage occurs after 6 minuteswithout oxygen. There is a difference between brain damage leading to deathand brain damage leading to a comma. 7. Coma VS Brain Death Being brain dead and being in a coma is not the same thing. Patients who suffer brain death are not in a coma. Patients in a coma may or may not progress to brain death Patients in a coma may come out of it and wake up butpatients who are brain dead will never wake up again. A patient can only be either in a vegetative state or braindead, theres no such thing as almost brain dead, its yes orno. 8. Determining Brain Dead The patient must pass all of these tests to be determined brain dead There are several tests done to determine if a patient is brain dead.1. The patient has no response to command2. The patient is flaccid, with areflexic extremities3. The pupils are nonreactive4. Patient has no oculocephalic reflex5. The patient has corneal reflex6. The patient has no response to supra orbital stimulation7. The patient has no oculovestibular reflex8. The patient has no gag reflex9. The patient has no spontaneous respiration. 9. Dying Brain 10. Assistant living Assistant living is for senior who are in some need of helpwith some daily assistance. Assistant living differs from nursing homes in that patients inassistant living can do most thing themselves, and they dontneed intensive care. The benefit of assistant living is the trained staff that canhelp patients who cant do something because of a illness. The national average for assistant living is $3,300 a monthand in Huntsville its $1,900. 11. Nursing Home Nursing homes are for patients who dont need to be in ahospital but cant be at home. Nursing homes are not only for the elderly but for anyonewho requires 24 hour care. The cost in the of nursing home care has risen 4 percent inthe last year with a private room being $84,000 a year or$229 a day. The average cost in Huntsville is $179 per day. 12. Death and Burial A person can have a will made out telling how he/she wantsto be buried. Most people in the US want to be buried in a casket but thereare many(mostly in the Pacific and Asia) who prefer to becremated. Religious and cultural beliefs also play a role in how aperson want to be buried(or cremated). 13. Funeral Home The price of a funeral can cost depends on how much youwant to spend. The basic service for a funeral with staff is $1495 Embalming costs another $595 and cosmetics are another$295 The casket costs anywhere from $900 to over $10,000! The burial costs another $1000 Cremation is a lot cheaper and cost only $1,345. 14. Funeral Home The price of a funeral can cost depends on how much youwant to spend. The basic service for a funeral with staff is $1495 Embalming costs another $595 and cosmetics are another$295 The casket costs anywhere from $900 to over $10,000! The burial costs another $1000 Cremation is a lot cheaper and cost only $1,345. 15. Hospice care is end-of-life care by medical professionals and volunteers who givemedical, psychological and spiritual support. The goal is to help those dying havepeace, comfort and dignity. The caregivers try to control pain and other symptomsso a person can remain as alert and comfortable as possible. This type of care iscalled palliative care Hospice programs also provide services to a patients family.Hospice patients are usually expected to live 6 months or less. Hospice care cantake placeAt homeAt a hospice centerIn a hospitalIn a skilled nursing facilitySource Cited: National Cancer InstituteHospice Care:Hospice is covered by Medicare nationwide and Medicaid is covered in Alabama. Mostinsurance providers also cover the cost of hospice care. Medicare covers the full scope ofmedical and support services provided by hospice. There is little to no expense to thepatient. -Hospice of North Alabama 16. Hospice of North Alabama (aging and terminally ill patients)Hospice Family Care(terminally ill patients and families)CommercialHospice Care options in Huntsville Area(patients must be referred by a doctor) : 17. Patients have the right to choose where they get their hospice services, and whatservices they use. Most hospice centers offer patients the following services:Case Manager (nurse): Periodically visits the patient to check patients physical,emotional, and spiritual health. The case manager then decided what can be donefor the patient to make them as comfortable as possible.Hospice Aide: Visits patient at scheduled times. Assists in bathing/grooming,recording vitals. Aide regularly reports the patients status to the Case Manager.Social Worker: Coordinates patients resources.Chaplains: Provides pastoral care, often gives patient their last rites.Volunteers: Provide care when family members are unable to, providescompanionship for patient. Generally helps the family when needed (groceryshopping, errands, etc) so that the family may spend their time with the patient.Source: Hospice of North AlabamaWhat Hospice Does 18. Advance DirectivesWhat are AdvanceDirectives?Legal documents thatexpress an individualsdesires regarding their end-of-life care.Living Wills express what procedures an individual does ordoes not want to extend their life. This includes; dialysisand breathing machines, if an individual wants to beresuscitated if heart or lungs stop, whether a feeding tubecan be used on an individual, and whether the individualwould like to donate organs or tissues upon death. 19. Advanced Directives in Alabama(Source: caringinfo.org)If you wish to revoke theAdvanced Directives you havethree options:Destroy the legal document.Write a formal revocation withyour signature and date.Orally express your desire torevoke the order to anindividual over the age of 19.This individual must then writeand sign confirmation that theyheard you revoke yourdirectives.Under Alabama law AdvanceDirectives that prohibit the useof feeding tubes, and life-sustaining treatments forpatients that are pregnant willbe ignored.Under Alabama law,separate documents areneeded to preventambulance and emergencyroom personnel fromproviding CPR. 20. Expected Lifespan:4865737981466167727640526476881001900 1940 1960 1990 2013Source:http://demog.berkeley.edu/~andrew/1918/figure2.htmlThis shift from family care to professional care hasminimized our exposure to the painful circumstancessurrounding the death of a loved one. Even thoughthe news exposes us to stories of death, becausethere is often no personal connection we are allowedto have distance from death. Because of this, we arenot as death-obsessed or as fearful of death asprevious generations.Source: SantrockTHEN (Early1900sTODAYOne out of twochildren diedbefore age 10. Byadulthood,children had lostone parent (onaverage).Death mostlyoccurs amongstaging adults.Most people diedat home, cared forby family.80% of deathsoccur in hospitalsor careinstitutions. 21. Leading Causes of Death:19001. Pneumonia2. Tuberculosis20131. Heart Disease2. CancerSource: cdc.gov19371. Heart Disease2. Pneumonia18501. Tuberculosis2. Cholera 22. Death in a Digital AgeGoogle recently introduced its InactiveAccount Manager, which allows usersto determine whether they want toopen accounts to loved ones, or havethe information deleted after theirpassing (this is determined by aselected amount of inactivity).Online profiles (i.e. facebook) often become makeshift memorials after someone dies,with the bereaved writing on their wall or tagging them in images to pay theirrespects. Some sites even offer a service that sends an email to a loved one of yourchoosing after you die. One such site, deathswi