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INVESTIGATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS AND ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS AMONG ROOM ATTENDANTS IN HOTEL INDUSTRIES

INVESTIGATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS AND ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS AMONG ROOM ATTENDANTS IN HOTEL INDUSTRIESMOHD SYAHIR BIN MUHAMAD JAFFAR (DD130028)SUPERVISOR: DR. MOHD NASRULL BIN ABDOL RAHMANPANEL 1: PROF. DR. KHALID BIN HASNANPANEL 2: PROF. MADYA DR. SH SALLEH BIN SH AHMAD

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Background of StudyProblem StatementObjectives of StudyScopes of StudySignificance of StudyLiterature ReviewResearch MethodologyData CollectionData OutcomeResults and DiscussionConclusionRecommendationsGantt ChartReferencesOUTLINE

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

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PROBLEM STATEMENTRoom Attendants(Housekeeping Tasks)Experienced awkward postures (CCOHS, 2016).Experienced neck and muscular pain, and CTS(VIRWC, 2010).Experienced low back pain(EU-OSHA, 2016).Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs).

Need maximum energy to push the carts which lead to forceful exertions (SCIF, 2016).Certain tasks would trigger knee pain among room attendants (Liladrie, 2008).Vibrating cleaning tools expose to hand-arm vibrations (EU-OSHA, 2009).

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OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

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SCOPE OF STUDY

SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

LITERATURE REVIEW

Four Weeks Prevalence of Pain by Body Region and Severity among Hotel Room Attendants in Las Vegas (Krause et al., 2005)LITERATURE REVIEW

RESEARCH METHODOLOGYMethodology Flowchart

Selected HotelNumber of ParticipantsKT Mutiara Hotel4Kenangan Hotel4UiTM Dungun Hotel9Ming Star Hotel8Asia Premium Hotel7Rail Hotel8Moonlight Hotel7Lavana Hotel5Kluang Merdeka Hotel8Golden Pearl Hotel5Total65

RESEARCH METHODOLOGYNumber of Participants from each Hotel

Sample of Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) evaluation process among room attendants

(a)(b)(c)(d)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

(a) Cleaning room with back bent forward more than 30, (b) Pushing trolley with high force, (c) Cleaning toilet with repetitive motion, (d) Making bed with improper body posture

Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ)Nordic Council of Ministers has funded a project in developing the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) in purpose for analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms (Kuorinka et al., 1987). The purpose was to develop and test a standardized questionnaire methodology allowing comparison of neck, low back, shoulder and general complaints for use in epidemiological studies (Crawford, 2016).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Demographic Items (Kuorinka et al., 1987)

General Questionnaire about Trouble with the Locomotive Organs (Kuorinka et al., 1987)RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

NMQ

Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA)Screening method by observant in detecting exposure to risk factors (Rahman et al., 2012).WERA assessment consists six physical risk factors which are posture, repetition, forceful, vibration, contact stress and task duration. WERA assessment involves five main body regions which are shoulder, wrist, back, neck and leg.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGYWERA

Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC)QEC is a tool for Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) practitioners to assess task exposure to risks for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) (Li and Buckle, 1999).QEC is easy and straightforward tool to use and provide exposure scores for body areas which include the back, shoulder/arm, wrist/hand, and neck, with related to posture and repetitive movements.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGYQEC

Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) ChecklistIn the late 1990s, the tool was developed in Washington State as part of a regulatory effort in order to control exposures to musculoskeletal risks in the workplace (Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, 2000)Observation method in determining whether the risk is caution or hazard.Common factors include awkward posture, high hand force (pinch and grasp), highly repetitive motion, repeated impact, heavy, frequent or awkward lifting, and moderate to high hand-arm vibration.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGYWISHA

Data Collection FlowchartDATA COLLECTION

DATA OUTCOMEData Outcome Flowchart

NMQ ResultsCharacteristicN%MeanSDGenderMale3960.0--Female2640.0Age2034.629.98.421-405280.0411015.4Working Experience (Year)1-56193.82.42.5646.2Weekly Working Time (Hours)40-5065100.046.53.151Body Mass Index (BMI)Underweight23.123.52.8Normal Weight4772.3Overweight1421.5Obesity23.1Hand DominanceRight-handed5381.5--Left-handed1218.5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONDemographic Variables, (n=65)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONNMQ ResultsPercentage of Nordic Questionnaire Respondents with Body Part Trouble in Last 12 Months , (n=65)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONNMQ ResultsThe Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms by Body Parts among Room Attendants , (n=65)SymptomsLower Back, % (n)Neck, % (n)Shoulder, % (n)Any trouble ever60.0 (39)3.1 (2)12.3 (8)Ever had in accident0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)Change job or duty1.5 (1)0 (0)0 (0)Total time with trouble last 12 months 0 days0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) 1-7 days3.1 (2)0 (0)1.5 (1) 8-30 days32.3 (21)3.1 (2)10.8 (7) More than 30 days, but not every day24.6 (16)0 (0)0 (0) Every day0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)Reduce of work activity last 12 months1.5 (1)0 (0)0 (0)Reduce of leisure activity last 12 months7.7 (5)0 (0)0 (0)Total time prevented work last 12 months 1-7 days4.6 (3)0 (0)0 (0) 8-30 days9.2 (6)0 (0)0 (0) More than 30 days0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) Sought a professional0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) Hospitalized1.5 (1)0 (0)0 (0)

Anatomical RegionAny trouble last 12 months, % (n)Prevented from normal work, % (n)Trouble last 7 days, % (n)Upper ExtremityShoulders12.3 (8)0 (0)0 (0)Elbows3.1 (2)0 (0)0 (0)Hands/Wrists41.5 (27)1.5 (1)1.5 (1)Lower ExtremityHips/Thighs20.0 (13)0 (0)1.5 (1)Knees36.9 (24)1.5 (1)0 (0)Ankles/Feet1.5 (1)0 (0)0 (0)Axial SkeletonNeck3.1 (2)0 (0)0 (0)Upper back30.8 (20)6.2 (4)3.1 (2)Lower back60.0 (39)13.9 (9)20.0 (13)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONNMQ ResultsTwelve-month Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work Interference by Body Region , (n=65)

Physical Risk FactorsScoreExposure LevelMeanSDShoulder(a)4.40.5MediumWrist(a)4.40.7MediumBack(a)5.00.0HighNeck(a)3.90.3MediumLeg(b)5.10.3HighForceful(c)4.80.4HighVibration(d)4.50.5HighContact Stress(e)3.50.5MediumTask Duration(f)3.80.5Medium

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONWERA ResultsNotes: - (a) Posture & Repetition, (b) Posture, (c) Lifting the load, (d) Using of vibration tool,(e) Using of tool handle or wearing hand gloves, (f) Task-hour/day

Exposure Level Standards for WERA Physical Risk Factors , (n=65)

Final ScoreRisk LevelActionN%18-27LowTask is acceptable--28-44MediumTask is need to further investigate & required change65100.045-54HighTask is not accepted, immediately change--

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONWERA ResultsWERA Final Score and Action Level , (n=65)

Risk Factors ScoreExposure LevelMeanSDBack (Static)---Back (Movement)29.84.3ModerateShoulders/arms30.43.6ModerateWrists/hands28.23.0ModerateNeck10.31.1Moderate

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONQEC ResultsExposure Level Standards for Back, Shoulder, Wrist and Neck , (n=65)

ScoreExposure LevelDrivingVibrationWork PaceStressN%N%N%N%1Low65100.01320.057.72335.44Medium--5280.06092.33553.99High------710.816Very High--------Total65100.065100.065100.065100.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONQEC ResultsExposure Level Standards for Driving, Vibration, Work Pace and Stress , (n=65)

ScoreAction LevelN%40%Acceptable--41-50%Investigate further1116.951-70%Investigate further and change soon5483.170%Investigate and change immediately--Total65100.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONQEC ResultsQEC Final Score and Action Level, (n=65)

Awkward PostureRisk LevelCautionhHazardiN%N%Shouldera65100.0--Shoulderb----Neckc----Backd----Backe (h)N/AN/A65100.0Kneesf65100.0--Kneesg65100.0--

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONWISHA Checklist ResultsRisk Level of Awkward Posture , (n=65)Notes: - Non-applicable (N/A), (a) Working with the hand(s) above the head or the elbow(s) above shoulder(s), (b) Repetitively raising the hand(s) above the head or the elbow(s) above the shoulder(s) more than once/minute, (c) Working with the neck bent more than 45 (without support or the ability to vary posture), (d) Working with the back bend forward more than 30 (without support or the ability to vary posture, (e) Working with the back bent forward more than 45 (without support or the ability to vary posture, (f) squatting, (g) kneeling, (h) Duration-more than 2 hours total/day, (i) Duration-more than 4 hours total/day

High Hand ForceRisk LevelHazardcHazarddCautioneHazardeN%N%N%N%Pincha--34.66295.4--Graspb--34.66295.4--

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONWISHA Checklist ResultsRisk Level of High Hand Force - Pinch & Grasp (arms, wrists & hands) , (n=65)Notes: - (a) Pinching an unsupported object(s) weighing 2 or more pounds/hand, or pinching with a force of 4 or more pounds/hand (comparable to pinching half a ream of paper), (b) Gripping an unsupported object(s) or with a force weighing 10 pounds or more pounds/hand (comparable to clamping light duty automotive jumper cables onto a battery, (c) Highly repetitive motion (more than 3 hours total/day), (d) Wrists bent in flexion 30 or more, or in extension 45 or more, or in ulnar deviation 30 or more (more than 3 hours total/day), (e) No other risk (caution - more than 2 hours total/day, hazard - more than 4 hours total/day

Physical Risk FactorRisk LevelCautionHazardN%N%Using same motion with little or variation every few secondsa1421.5--Using same motion with little or variation every few secondsbN/AN/A5178.5Intensive keyingcN/AN/A--Intensive keyingd----

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONWISHA Checklist ResultsRisk Level of Highly Repetitive Motion (Neck, shoulders, elbows,