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Failed in Italy Popes directly involved with affairs of state Spanish/HRE Hapsburgs support Pope –Dominant in Southern Italy and Venetia Italian Peninsula remained loyal to Catholicism

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  • Protestant Reformation

    PopeBelieversClergyMonks/Nuns

  • Failed in ItalyPopes directly involved with affairs of stateSpanish/HRE Hapsburgs support PopeDominant in Southern Italy and VenetiaItalian Peninsula remained loyal to Catholicism

  • Catholic Church was a source of wealth for ItaliansItalian Renaissance and Papal patronage made Italy richItalian universities made questioning theological questions unheard of

  • Succeeded in Northern EuroChurch members pay church taxTax $ went to RomeRulers saw none of the $ locallyRulers resented this!Church critics appeal to nationalistic sentimentLuther = GermanWyclif = EnglishHuss = Bohemian (S. German or Slav)

  • Reformers back Centralization of monarchyNobles saw chance to seize Church landPrinting press spread ideas quicklyNorthern universities were more liberal and allowed for theological debate

  • CausesCorruption withinSimony, Nepotism, Pluralism, AbsenteeismChurch divisionAvignon PapacyGreat Schism of the WestConciliar Movement

  • Renaissance HumanismRenaissance SecularismCriticsSale of IndulgencesRenaissance Popes

  • Early Critics: John Wyclif1320-1384

    English FriarCriticized vices of clergyCriticized Papal taxes and authorityAnti-transubstantiationScripture, not tradition, is authorityFollowers = LollardsLollard peasant revolt (1381) hurt Wyclifs cause

  • Early Critics: Jon Huss1369-1415

    Czech PriestSimilar to Wyclif in many waysBohemia support Huss: State challenge to Papal authorityFollowers = HussitesHuss burned at stake: Council of Constance

  • Renaissance Critics: Erasmus1466-1536

    True religion = inward sincerityPious devotionOutward ritual and ceremony meaninglessScripture is guide; not priesthoodSevere Humanist critic (Christian Humanism)

    In Praise of Folly

  • Renaissance Critics: More1478-1535

    Idea of communal livingNo class distinctionsNo competition (economic)Defied Henry VIIICatholic martyr (executed by Henry)

    Utopia

  • StorylineRenaissance Popes focus on patronage of arts and wealthPope Leo X authorize Tetzel to sell Indulgences to help pay for re-building of St Peters BasilicaIndulgences used since Crusades to raise fundsTetzel expands their use/application

  • Martin Luther wrote 95 Thesis questioning use of Indulgences (1517)Luther meant to reform Church from within (Luther was a monk)95 Thesis widely read N German States used Luther to express their ideas or further their political/economic goals

  • Papal delegates and Luther debate: Luther refused to recantLuther excommunicatedGerman states hide/support LutherHenry VIII uses Luther to further his ends and breaks from RomeOthers began protests and were supported by various statesJohn Calvin, John Knox, Zwingli, Wesley, etc

  • Martin Luther1483-1546Justification by Faith2 SacramentsTrue Authority = BiblePriesthood of followersConsubstantiationBishops = Administrators only

  • Reject Papal authorityClergy may marryReligious services in the vernacularChurch is subordinate to the State

  • Key Events regarding LutherPosting of 95 Thesis (1517)Debate with Johann Eck in Leipzig (1520)Luther ExcommunicatedDiet of Worms (1521)Luther Outlawed by HRE

  • Peasants Revolt (1524-1525)Swabian Peasant uprising (12 Articles)Luther Admonished themWe should obey rulers here on Earth

    Catholics & Lutherans suppressed uprisingConfessions of Augsburg (1530)Written by Philip MelanchthonCompromise in attempt to reconcile Lutheranism & CatholicismRejected by CatholicsBecame central statement of Lutheran belief

  • League of Schmalkalden (1531)Formed by German princes to defend against Charles V drive to re-Catholicize German StatesFrancis I of France allied with the League (even though he was Catholic see below)

    Hapsburg-Valois Wars (1521-1555) France try to keep Germany divided (aiding Lutherans accomplished this aim)Charles victorious over the League in 1547 (too late Lutheranism held too much sway)

  • 8. PEACE OF AUGSBURG (1555)Temporary end to Lutheran-Catholic Struggle in German StatesCuius regio, eius religio

    Whose the religion, his the religionPrinces choose Lutheran or Catholic for his stateRe-affirmed independence of German StatesEnsured division of German States (stunted German Nationalism)

  • Still to ComeCalvinismZwingliAnglicanismAnabaptists and MennonitesUnitarianismPresbyterianismCatholic Counter Reformation

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