protection, support, and movement

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Protection, Support, and Movement. Chapter 39. KEY CONCEPTS. Many structures and processes have evolved in animals for protection, support, and movement. Learning Objective 1. Compare the functions of the external epithelium of invertebrates and vertebrates. Epithelial Tissue. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Protection, Support, and MovementChapter 39

  • KEY CONCEPTSMany structures and processes have evolved in animals for protection, support, and movement

  • Learning Objective 1Compare the functions of the external epithelium of invertebrates and vertebrates

  • Epithelial TissueIn both invertebrates and vertebratesprotects underlying tissuesspecialized sensory or respiratory functions

    Outer epithelium specialized to secretelubricants or adhesivesodorous or poisonous substances

  • Epithelial Tissue in InvertebratesCuticle protective shell secreted by outer epithelium

  • Integumentary System of Vertebrates Skin and structures that develop from it

    Mammalian skin includeshair, claws or nails, sweat glands, oil glands, sensory receptors

  • Learning Objective 2Relate the structure of vertebrate skin to its functions

  • Feathers and HairFeathers of birds and hair of mammals form insulating layer helps maintain constant body temperature

  • Epidermis 1 Protects body from outer environment

    Stratum corneum most superficial layerconsists of dead cells filled with keratin

    Keratininsoluble proteingives mechanical strength to skinreduces water loss

  • Epidermis 2Stratum basale cells divide, are pushed up to skin surface cells mature, flatten, produce keratineventually die and slough off

  • DermisConsists of dense, fibrous connective tissue

    Rests on layer of subcutaneous tissuecomposed largely of insulating fat

  • Human Skin

  • Fig. 39-1, p. 829Openings of sweat glandsCapillaryNerve endingsStratum corneumEpidermisStratum basaleMelanocyte (pigment cell)Hair erector muscleDermisHair shaftSensory receptor (Pacinian corpuscle)Subcutaneous tissueHair follicleArteryVeinSweat glandSebaceous gland

  • KEY CONCEPTSEpithelial coverings protect underlying tissues and may be specialized for sensory, respiratory, or other functions

  • Learning Objective 3Compare the structure and functions of different types of skeletal systems, including the hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton

  • The Skeletal SystemSupports and protects the body

    Transmits mechanical forces generated by muscles

  • Hydrostatic SkeletonFluid in closed body compartmenttransmits forces generated by contractile cells or muscle

    Found in soft-bodied invertebratescnidarians, flatworms, annelids

  • Hydrostatic Skeleton

  • Fig. 39-2, p. 830Longitudinal contractile fibers of epidermal layerCircular contractile fibers of gastrodermisContraction of circular contractile fibers elongates the body.(b) Contraction of longitudinal fibers shortens the body.

  • Fig. 39-2, p. 830Stepped Art

  • ExoskeletonsNonliving skeleton characteristic of mollusks and arthropodsdoesnt grow, arthropods must molt periodically

    Arthropod skeletoncomposed partly of chitin jointed for flexibility adapted for many lifestyles

  • Ecdysis

  • EndoskeletonsConsist of living tissuecan grow

    Found in echinoderms and chordates

  • Learning Objective 4Describe the main divisions of the vertebrate skeleton and the bones that make up each division

  • The Vertebrate Skeleton 1

    Axial skeleton skull vertebral column rib cage sternum

  • The Vertebrate Skeleton 2

    Appendicular skeleton limbs pectoral girdlepelvic girdle

  • Fig. 39-5, p. 832

  • Fig. 39-5a, p. 832SkullSternumRib cageVertebraeAxial skeleton (brown)

  • Fig. 39-5b, p. 832ClavicleHumerusRadiusPelvic girdleUlnaCarpalsMetacarpalsPhalangesFemurPatellaFibulaTibiaTarsalsMetatarsalsPhalangesScapulaAppendicular skeleton (brown)

  • KEY CONCEPTSSkeletal systems, whether they are hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, or endoskeletons, support and protect the body and transmit mechanical forces important in movement

  • Learning Objective 5Describe the structure of a typical long bone

    Differentiate between endochondral and intramembranous bone development

  • A Long BoneConsists of a thin outer shell of compact bone surrounding inner spongy bone a central cavity that contains bone marrow

  • A Long Bone

  • Fig. 39-6, p. 833Articular surface covered with cartilageEpiphysisRed marrow in spongy boneMetaphysisPeriosteumYellow marrowBlood supplyDiaphysisCompact boneArticular cartilageEpiphysis

  • Bone DevelopmentLong bonesdevelop from cartilage templates during endochondral bone development

    Other bones (such as flat bones of skull)develop from noncartilage connective tissue model by intramembranous bone development

  • Bone CellsOsteoblastscells that produce bone

    Osteoclastscells that break down bone

    Osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together to shape and remodel bone

  • Learn more about the human skeletal system and a typical long bone by clicking on the figures in ThomsonNOW.

  • Learning Objective 6Compare the main types of vertebrate joints

  • JointsJunctions of two or more bones

    Ligamentsconnective tissue bands connect bones limit movement in joint

  • Types of JointsImmovable jointssutures of the skull

    Slightly movable jointsjoints between vertebrae

    Freely movable joint enclosed by joint capsule lined with membrane that secretes synovial fluid

  • Learning Objective 7Relate the structure and function of insect flight muscles

  • Insect Flight MusclesLarge numbers of mitochondria and tracheae (air tubes) support high metabolic rate required for flight

  • Learning Objective 8Describe the structure of skeletal muscles and their antagonistic actions

  • Muscular SystemsIn vertebrates and most invertebrates muscle tissue contracts (shortens) moves body parts by pulling on them

    Three types of muscleskeletal smoothcardiac muscle

  • The Muscular System

  • Fig. 39-8a, p. 835Muscles that flex fingersFacial musclesSternocleido- mastoidPlatysmaTrapeziusLatissimus dorsiClavicleDeltoidRectus abdominisPectoralis majorLinea albaBiceps brachiiExternal obliqueBrachialisGluteus mediusWrist and finger flexorsGracilisSartoriusQuadriceps femorisTriceps brachiiPatellaGastrocnemiusTibialis anteriorSoleusTibia

  • Fig. 39-8b, p. 835Biceps brachiiSternocleidomastoidTrapeziusDeltoidBrachialisTriceps brachiiLatissimus dorsiBrachioradialisExternal obliqueMuscles that flex fingersGluteus maximusHamstring musclesGracilis SemitendinosusBiceps femorisSemi-membranosusGastrocnemiusSoleusAchilles tendonCalcaneus

  • Vertebrate Skeletal MusclesPull on tendonsconnective tissue, attaches muscles to bones

    Muscle contractionpulls bone toward or away from the bone with which it articulates

  • Muscle ActionsSkeletal muscles act antagonistically to one another

    Agonist muscle that produces a particular action

    Antagonist produces the opposite movement

  • Muscle Actions

  • Fig. 39-7, p. 834Biceps relaxesTriceps contractsTriceps relaxesBiceps contractsFlexionExtension

  • Insert Opposing muscle actionbiceps_triceps.swf

  • Skeletal Muscle Structure 1Skeletal muscle (such as biceps)organ made up of hundreds of muscle fibers

    Muscle fiber consists of threadlike myofibrils composed of smaller myofilaments (filaments)

  • Muscle Structure

  • Fig. 39-9a, p. 836Biceps muscle(a) A muscle such as the biceps in the arm consists of many fascicles (bundles) of muscle fibers.

  • Fig. 39-9b, p. 836Muscle fibers(b) A fascicle wrapped in a connective tissue covering.

  • Fig. 39-9c, p. 836SarcolemmaSarcoplasmic reticulumT tubuleMitochondria Nucleus(c) Part of a muscle fiber showing the structure of myofibrils. The Z lines mark the ends of the sarcomeres.MyofibrilZ lineMyofilamentsSarcomere

  • Fig. 39-9d, p. 8361 m(d) TEM of a striated muscle.

  • Fig. 39-9e, p. 83625 m(e) LM showing striations.

  • Skeletal Muscle Structure 2

    Striations of skeletal muscle fibersoverlapping actin and myosin filaments

    Sarcomere contractile unit of actin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments

  • Sliding Filament Model

  • Fig. 39-10a, p. 838Cross bridgesActin (thin filament)Myosin (thick filament)SarcomereA bandI bandH zoneCross bridgesActin (thin) filament Myosin (thick) filament

  • Insert Sliding filament modelsliding_filament_v2.swf

  • Learning Objective 9List, in sequence, the events that take place during muscle contraction

  • Muscle Contraction 1Acetylcholine released by motor neuronbinds to receptors on muscle fiber surface

    Causes depolarization of sarcolemma transmission of action potential

    Action potential spreads through T tubules releasing Ca ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum

  • Muscle Contraction 2Ca ions bind to troponin in actin filaments causing troponin to change shape

    Troponin pushes tropomyosin away from binding sites on actin filaments

  • Muscle Contraction 3ATP binds to myosin ATP is split, putting myosin head in high-energy state (cocked)

    Energized myosin heads attach to exposed binding sites on actin filaments forming cross bridges that link myosin and actin filaments

  • Muscle Contraction 4Cross bridge flexes as phosphate is released power stroke pulls actin filament toward center of sarcomere

    ADP released during power stroke

    Myosin head binds a new ATPlets myosin head detach from actin

  • Muscle Contraction 5As long as calcium ion concentration remains elevated new ATP is split, sequence repeats

    Myosin reattaches to new act


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