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Prosecuting Intellectual Property Cases. Arnold H. Huftalen Assistant U.S. Attorney U.S. Department of Justice When Do U.S. Authorities Bring Criminal IP Charges? How Does the US Prosecute? Recent IPR Prosecutions. Some Enforcement Issues. AGENDA. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Prosecuting Intellectual Property CasesArnold H. HuftalenAssistant U.S. AttorneyU.S. Department of

  • AGENDAWhen Do U.S. Authorities Bring Criminal IP Charges?How Does the US Prosecute?Recent IPR Prosecutions.Some Enforcement Issues.

  • When Do U.S. Authorities Bring Criminal IP Charges?Majority of IP enforcement actions in U.S. are civil, not criminal Effective civil systemBurden of proof more difficult in criminal casesCivil = preponderance of evidenceCriminal = beyond a reasonable doubt

  • Factors Affecting Decision to Prosecute

    Federal Law Enforcement PrioritiesNature and Seriousness of Offensescale of infringement (scope, amount of loss, harm)commercial purposehealth/safety issuesOrganized Criminal InvolvementAdequate alternative non-criminal remediesAdequate Civil Enforcement; Repeat Offender; Deterrent EffectOther: culpability, cooperation with investigation, subject to prosecution elsewhere

    When Do U.S. Authorities Bring Criminal IP Charges?

  • How Are IP Cases Prosecuted in the U.S.?

    Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) in Washington, D.C.Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property (CHIP) Coordinators in all 94 U.S. Attorney OfficesOffice of Consumer LitigationFederal Law Enforcement AgenciesVictim Industry Partnerships

  • CCIPS39 Attorneys in Washington, DC13 Dedicated to IPRWork daily with prosecutors in U.S.Work regularly with prosecutors around the world

  • CHIP CoordinatorsCHIP Coordinators in all 94 DistrictsCreated in 2001Prosecute crimes; provide technical assistance within district; provide multi-district assistance; provide training and community outreach

  • OFFICE OF CONSUMER LITIGATIONU.S. DOJ Civil DivisionHandles civil & criminal cases involving intellectual property laws that protect public health and safety

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)Bureau of Immigration & Customs Enforcement (BICE)Customs & Border Patrol (CBP)U.S. Postal Inspection ServiceU.S. Secret ServiceU.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)U.S. FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

  • VICTIM INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPSExamplesMicrosoftCiscoMotion Picture Association of America (MPAA)Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA)

  • RECENT IPR PROSECUTIONSCounterfeit Computer Network HardwareCounterfeit PharmaceuticalsWarezCounterfeit CDs & DVDsCounterfeit Luxury Goods

  • COUNTERFEIT COMPUTER NETWORK HARDWAREFebruary 2008Joint U.S & Canada investigation400 seizures$76,000,000 counterfeit network hardware seized

  • COUNTERFEIT PHARMACEUTICALSCholesterol lowering medicationsAntibioticsLifestyle medicationViagra & Cialis

  • WAREZ-Software PiracySignificant U.S. prosecutionsOperation Buccaneer Operation Digital PiratezOperation BandwidthOperation FastLinkOperation Higher EducationOperation Site DownOperation Summer Solstice

  • To CouriersDistributionSupplierWAREZ GROUPS

  • OPTICAL DISC PIRACYOperation Remaster-20062 charged500,000 pirated music CDs5,500 high-speed, high quality stampers

  • ONLINE MUSIC PIRACY2003-2008Apocalypse Crew (APC) 15 convictionsPre-release musicGlobal distribution within hours

  • LUXURY GOODSCounterfeit watchesCounterfeit handbags & wallets2005--VirginiaMore than 50,000 handbags & wallets seized Worth more than $2,000,0002006--MassachusettsMore than 20,000 handbags & wallets seizedWorth more than $1,400,000

  • SOME ENFORCEMENT ISSUES . . .Large scale infringement without profit motive (WAREZ)Proof issues: quantity and identity of infringing itemsDisclaimers by distributorsObtaining assistance of victimsIs defendant responsible for infringement: control over content and maintenance of infringement facility

  • OTHER ENFORCEMENT ISSUESU.S. Balancing rights of customers, inventors and content providersIncreasing IP enforcement resourcesTraining of prosecutors and agentsCharging IP offensesEducating (victims and public)

  • OTHER ENFORCEMENT ISSUESInternationalSame issues as domesticInternational cooperative agreementsUniformity of criminal violationsCoordinationCumbersome formal legal processInformal contacts

  • QUESTIONSThank you,

    Arnold H. HuftalenAssistant United States AttorneyU.S. Department of



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