Promotion of Clean Emission Charcoal Productivity by cost effective

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<ul><li><p>Promotion of Clean Emission Charcoal Productivity by cost effective technologies at field scale: </p><p>Use of Biochar </p><p>in Kitchen Garden </p><p>Jay Anand 6/7/2015 </p><p>Project undertaken with the financial support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), www.idrc.ca, and the Government of Canada, provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD), www.international.gc.ca </p><p>http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.devalt.org/http://www.carbonneutralcommons.org/</p></li><li><p>Stubble burning to create Artificial smog </p><p>Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=82409 </p></li><li><p>Adaptation Measures on Biochar Improves farm productivity More moisture &amp; More Nutrients Enhance nutrient use efficiency Keeps Carbon largely intact </p><p>Community Reliance </p><p>The Science &amp; Policy of Biochar </p><p>our field experience and many researchers ascertained that it is good for the soil pH (raises), supplies nutrients, improves water retention improved productivity Traps carbon in soil for the long term (100s or 1000s of years) climate change mitigation </p><p>Why are we interested in biochar? </p></li><li><p>Definitions </p><p>Charcoal: Pyrolysed wood as a clean-burning energy-dense (bio)fuel </p><p>Biochar: Biomass pyrolysed to store carbon, recycle nutrients and enhance structure and function of soil in agriculture. </p><p>Both can be produced cleanly, with correct Technology </p></li><li><p>Definitions </p><p>C, H, O </p><p>C, H, O </p><p>C </p><p>air smoke</p><p>char</p><p>C, H, O</p><p>C, H, O</p><p>C</p><p>Heat</p><p>Heat </p><p>Source: UK Biochar Research centre </p></li><li><p>Conversion process has an effect </p><p>CharChar</p><p>Char</p><p>Vapouror oil</p><p>Vapouror oil</p><p>Gas</p><p>Gas</p><p>Gas</p><p>0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%</p><p>100%</p><p>Slowpyrolysis</p><p>Fastpyrolysis</p><p>Gasif-ication</p><p>mins-hours seconds &lt; 1 second </p><p>Indicative mass </p><p>fractions from biomass </p><p>conversion </p><p>Typical product mix for biomass conversions </p><p>UK Biochar Research centre </p></li><li><p>fossil carbon</p><p>(energy)</p><p>CO2</p><p>biomass C</p><p>fossil C</p><p>pyrolysis</p><p>soil C biochar C</p><p>2</p><p>7Gty-1</p><p>60Gty-1?</p><p>?</p><p>photosynthesis</p><p>Drivers: making biochar stabilises C and stores it in soil </p><p>60 Gt / yr </p><p>7 Gt / yr </p><p>60 Gt / yr </p></li><li><p>Chris Watts, Rothamsted Research </p><p>Carbon in soil is associated with soil structure and function but as organic matter </p></li><li><p>Biochar and carbon purpose or benefit? </p><p>Carbon storage with (local) agronomic benefit, or Agricultural product with carbon storage benefit? </p><p>Carbon storage is one-off and simple to ascertain but its current / future value is not certain </p><p> could provide an important incentive to develop and test the agronomic value of biochar </p></li><li><p>Biochar is distinct from other organic matter added to soil its diverse properties matter </p><p> and not all biochar looks or behaves the same </p><p>UK Biochar Research centre (UKBRC) </p></li><li><p>Effects on plant productivity: unpredictable, small on average and under-estimated? </p><p>Change in crop productivity with biochar addition to soil100%0%40% 20%</p><p>Jeffery et al., 2011, AGEE</p><p>Change in crop productivity with biochar addition to soil100%0%40% 20%</p><p>Jeffery et al., 2011, AGEE</p></li><li><p>Raw Material situation </p><p>Vermi-Compost </p><p>Biochar </p><p>Sources </p><p>Crop Residues </p><p>wood Residues Exotic </p><p>Byproduct Rice husk Char </p><p>Centralized De -Centralized </p><p>Field Level </p><p>1 </p><p>2 </p><p>3 </p><p>Indigenous </p><p>Excess at field </p><p>Y N </p><p>Y N </p><p>Y N </p><p>Y N </p><p>Y N Wood Char </p><p>Cassava Y N </p><p>Y N Govt. </p><p>Institution </p><p>Agencies </p><p>Y N </p><p>Y N </p><p>* Costs are need to explore, rice husk at salem </p><p>Centralized De -Centralized </p><p>Forest depo Y N </p><p>Y N Y N </p><p>Y N Y N </p><p>Paddy Y N </p></li><li><p>Different people/locations are interested in biochar for different reasons .... </p><p>State1/ location </p><p>Interest in biochar, modest () to strong () Soil quality/ productivity </p><p>C sequestration/ climate change mitigation </p><p>Bioenergy production </p><p>Waste management </p><p>Odisha Kolli hills </p><p> Different stakeholders (government, farmers etc.) are interested in different things Interest and perspective may change ... In 5 years, 10 years etc.??? 13 </p></li><li><p>Bicochar (Gasification process Cook stove/retort/ drum &amp; Earth kiln) </p><p>Field Application (Acidic Soil) </p><p>Biomass growth (Plant/ Vegetable) </p><p>Analyze chemical properties of soil - PH (Before &amp; After) </p><p>Crop root analysis </p><p>Expected Outcomes </p><p>Social, Gender, Environment &amp; Economical benefits </p><p>Fuel wood Agri residues </p><p> Micro industry waste Rice husk Char </p><p>Fertile Soil Sub Soil </p><p>Available Choice </p><p>Selection </p><p>Biochar </p><p>Land Use </p><p>Upland Low Land Kitchen garden </p><p>Performance </p><p>Cottage industry </p></li><li><p>Developing Typologies </p><p>Some factors that might affect biochar suitability (+ = suitable; ++= very suitable; - = unsuitable; -- = very unsuitable; -/+ = mixed or uncertain </p><p>suitability). </p><p>Location Biochar status (product type) </p><p>Cost/tech level </p><p>Source of feedstock </p><p>1ary 2ndary waste high med/ low </p><p>Plentiful/ available (climate) </p><p>Scarce/ competing </p><p>uses /scattered </p><p>Rural, community level </p><p>- + ++ -- -/+ + + </p><p>Rural "niche"1 -/+ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + </p><p>15 </p></li><li><p>Hypothesis to study synergistic response in growth of crop/vegetable </p><p>when biodigester effluent will combined with/ without Biochar </p></li><li><p>Sub questions to address CC adaptation? </p><p> Is all biochar (different agri residues) the same? How stable (mean residence time) is biochar in soil? </p><p> Is biochar/biochar compost (Clean/ contaminated) </p><p>safe to use in Alkaline/Acidic soil? </p><p> What are the agronomic benefits (crop productivity through increased nutrient use efficiency, increased water-holding capacity and decreased bulk density)? </p></li><li><p>Interested to go through Biochar sampling ..... </p><p>What are the main soil constraints? e.g. N, P, pH. How well do biochars made from the feedstocks in the </p><p>area address these? Which feedstock/biochar comes out best? Optimization of biochar production fit of selection with current demands/uses best biochar! </p><p>18 </p></li><li><p>Situation Analysis for both research sites </p><p> Time (15 days) to apply char in Agriculture field (Upper, Lowland) Crop is standing in Kitchen garden and limited space to do </p><p>experiment As per local climate and acidic soil (Expert advice India &amp; </p><p>Abroad): Apply Biochar compost instead of Biochar only 15 days are required to mature biochar compost Kitchen gardens are best field to apply biochar compost at this </p><p>point of time Selection of field (time constraints/unexpected rain Odisha &amp; </p><p>KH) Two different ways either you wait until harvesting or apply </p><p>char immediately and compare with control vs. experimental plot </p></li><li><p>Soil Health + </p><p>Energy Saving (3) Livelihood </p><p>(2,3) Gender </p><p>Biochar </p><p>Energy Saving </p><p>-Increase farm/ kitchen garden production -per crop income -Reclamination of degraded soil - Biochar sale </p><p>-Dredging -Reduce fuel wood consumption -Increase HH income -Waste management </p><p>- pH, mineral nutrients and labile carbon - Water retention Sandy &amp; loamy soils (Black &amp; Red) - GHG suppression, limiting diffuse, water pollution - Long term impacts: change in microbial community, carbon neutralizing </p><p>(1) Introduce Cook stove &amp; Kiln </p><p>(4) Kitchen garden + Field </p><p>(5) nutrition </p><p>Policy (9) </p><p>Conceptual framework </p></li><li><p>Conceptual framework 1. Developing and deploying location specific, socially inclusive innovative char application </p><p>to increase productivity in farm agriculture 2. Harnessing the strength the women and men in working together, their skill in processing </p><p>of farm produces and their readiness to get out of drudgery in processing 3. Relative ease in promotion of local food for cultivation, consumption and value addition </p><p>analysis, nutrition and income 4. Developing value chain for farm produces, involving network of women SHGs and </p><p>supported by skill development, access to char credit, market linkage, and also char advocacy (no chemical fertilizers) </p><p>5. The potential of off livelihood option for employment and income generation particularly to women and landless labourers </p><p>6. Improved food and nutritional security with diversity in food basket and choice of crops to address chronic and hidden hunger </p><p>7. Sustaining the change through its institutionalization and training and capacity building of all stakeholders </p><p>8. Project management with built in mechanism for periodic assessment of the outcome/ effectiveness of project interventions, course corrections in sync calibrated social altitude to technology. </p><p>9. Holistic integration of crop farming, better management of natural resources (Land, water and biodiversity), improve char recycling, increase carbon sequestration, and need based, regulated use of agro chemical for pro nature sustainable change </p></li><li><p>Biochar Case Study Locations </p><p>Odisha </p><p>Study Site Jeypore, Odisha Biochar Source- Cook Stove waste Semi Arid region Rainfall 1650 mm Soil type red (fertile/ Sub Soil) Sample study 40 farmers (Most of them are marginal farmers, mixed caste group) Field Application- 25 Sqm of each farmer Kitchen Garden - 20 sqm each houses (20 HH women +Men) Crop Selection Paddy, Millet, Green Gram (20 HH) Vegetable garden Onion, tomato, lady finger, radish, carrot Partners : GEO, Hyderabad, and Rice Mills, Koraput </p></li><li><p>Cook Stove ( 3 Nos.) </p><p>Biochar </p><p>Biochar Kilns (3 Nos.) </p><p>Enterprise (Gasifier boiler, </p><p>Earth kiln) </p><p>Managing Soil Health </p><p>Reduction in cooking time </p><p>Reduction in per head load </p><p>Reduced exposure to smoke (health </p><p>benefit) </p><p>Sustainable and Productive Crops </p><p>More Food for Livestock </p><p>More Food for People </p><p>Soci</p><p>o- E</p><p>cono</p><p>mic</p><p> ben</p><p>efits</p><p>, effi</p><p>cien</p><p>cy, </p><p>Tim</p><p>e &amp;</p><p> Loc</p><p>al a</p><p>ccep</p><p>tanc</p><p>e w</p><p>ith s</p><p>cien</p><p>tific</p><p> fact</p><p>s Biochar outline </p><p>Cost &amp; Sustainability, accessibility </p></li><li><p>charcoal has an established field application but remains associated with pollution and unsustainable resource use </p><p>Biochar is not yet well recognised value but can be produced more cleanly, sustainably </p><p>Quality &amp; Quantity of Biochar </p><p>Biochar Maker at Household/ Field level - Gasifier </p><p>The feeding rate is 0.8/1kg per hour depends upon fuel source </p><p>The feeding rate is 1 ton/2-3 hours depends upon fuel source </p></li><li><p>Biochar Maker at Field Scale Semi gasifier </p><p>The feeding rate is 100kg per hour </p></li><li><p>* </p><p>Agro residue - char Bio-Charcoal Jaggery Local Soil </p><p>Vermi Compost </p><p>Rice husk, Straw, Tapioca (Procure) 43% </p><p>Woody Material (Silver oak)(prepare/ Procure) 5% </p><p>1 % 1% 50% </p><p>Biochar Compost for Acidic Soil </p></li><li><p>Plot Design for Biochar characterization at MSSRF </p><p>Control (Crop 1) Biochar </p><p>Biochar Compost </p><p>(BCC) </p><p>Vermi-Compost </p><p>Control (Crop 2) Biochar BCC </p><p>Vermi-Compost </p><p>Control (Crop 3) </p><p>Biochar BCC Vermi-Compost </p><p>Control (Crop 4) Biochar </p><p>Crop 1,2,3,4 </p><p>55 45 % 60 40 % 70 30 % </p><p>1m </p><p>1m </p><p>BCC Vermi-Compost </p><p>Crop 1,2,3,4 Crop 1,2,3,4 </p><p>50 50 % </p></li><li><p>Trial plots </p><p>Upper Land (UL) </p><p>Lower Land (LL) </p><p>Kitchen Garden (UL+ LL) </p><p>10 10 20 Plot No. </p><p>(Size 5 x 5 m) </p><p>Paddy Millet Paddy Millet Leafy veg Root veg </p><p>Amranthus Tomato/ Brinjal </p></li><li><p>CbV process </p><p>Multiwell Tray </p><p>Petri dish Test </p><p>Experimental plot(Treatment) </p><p>Roll towel test </p><p>Technology </p><p>Biochar </p><p>(Rice husk ) (Prosopis Julifora) </p><p>TLUD gasifier Metal kiln </p><p>Germination test </p><p>BioC+ </p><p>byproduct </p><p>Pot Assay </p><p>Lab Experiment Residual effect of fertilizer (Pot &amp; Field) -(can reduce the need of fertilizer, resulting in reduced emission from fertilizer production) Increases microbiological population (Lab, Pot and field) resulting in more carbon storage in soil Using TLUD cookstove, reduces fire wood consumption contributes carbon offset; and converting agro residues into biochar reduces methane at field Improved soil aggregation Faster seed germination ( Lab , Pot &amp; Field) Increases Soil Carbon ( Lab &amp; Field) Reduces leaching of nitrates, phosphates, potash Increases water-holding capacity of soil (Pot assay) </p><p>Plant growth </p><p>Soil Analysis* Physical Chemical Micro biological </p><p>Indicator tested </p><p>Findings Lab, Pot assay &amp; Field (Kitchen garden, farmers plot) </p><p>Farmers kitchen garden </p><p>Treatment- T1- Control (5 t/ha), T2- VC (5t/ha), T3 (2 t/ha), T4(4t/ha),T5(8t/ha),T6 (10t/ha) Char, T7 (2t/ha),T8(4t/ha),T9(8t/ha),T10(10t/ha)-BioC+ </p><p>* In different depth (A- 0-15 cm, B- 15-30cm), Nitrogen(kg/ha), Phosphorus (kg/ha), Bulk density (g/cc), Particle density (g/cc), Water Holding Capacity(%), Porosity (%), pH, Electrical Conductivity (m.mhos/cm) , Bacteria load- 10^4, Fungi load- 10^2 </p><p>Adaptation &amp; Mitigation (www.carbonbiovillage.akasmika.net) </p><p>Need further testing for significant result </p><p>Different rate of application (T1- T10) Fixed rate of application (T10) </p></li><li><p>http://carbonbiovillage.akasmika.net/ http://climateneutralvillage.net/ </p><p>Carbon Bio village </p><p>http://carbonbiovillage.akasmika.net/http://climateneutralvillage.net/</p></li><li><p> Rice husk Fuel wood Mixture Biochar Compost pH 8.78 9.11 7.86 </p><p>Is all biochar the same? </p></li><li><p>Is all biochar the same? </p></li><li><p>24 to 48 Hour Trial </p></li><li><p>1 week Trial </p></li><li><p>2 week trial </p></li><li><p>60 to 120 Days Trial </p></li><li><p>Results </p></li><li><p>Policy Advocacy Tested with 50 HH in Odisha </p><p>Percentage Yes No </p><p>Is it useful product? 100 0 Will you suggest to your friend &amp; family? 98 2 Can it save cost? If biomass is not freely available 100 0 Can it reduce drudgery? Reduce time taken to gather fuelwood 100 0 Reduce the consumption of fuelwood 100 0 Ease of Use 100 0 Ease of Maintenance 80 20 Ease of size fuelwood to put in canister 100 0 Durability of Stove 100 0 Ability to withstand rough handling 40 60 Ease of working with the flame (starting it, controlling the flame, extinguishing the flame etc.) 34 66 Ability to cater to my cooking requirement 82 18 Provide adequate cooking duration 56 44 Provide adequate flame power 70 30 Reduce smoke 80 20 Enables faster cooking 100 0 Free time for other activities 98 2 Does not require constant supervision 0 100 TLUD being suitable to all my cooking vessel 84 16 </p><p>Reason for advocacy TLUD cook stove </p><p>Performance of TLUD </p><p>Soil </p><p>Food items </p><p>Amount of fuel wood used (in kg) in clay stove </p><p>Timming (mins) </p><p>Amount of fuel wood used (in kg) in TLUD Stove </p><p>Timming (mins) </p><p>Char-coal weight (gram) </p><p>Saved fuel </p><p>wood (%) </p><p>Rice 1.41 28.26 0.97 25.52 296.60 (for </p><p>cooking three food </p><p>items) </p><p>45.51 Dalma 0.39 8.28 0.30 7.54 31.33 Mandiya 0.81 16.32 0.56 15.04 45.50 Vegetable 0.24 5.28 0.19 4.54 30.76 Fry 0.27 5.36 0.21 5.18 32.71 Atani 0.37 7.46 0.28 7.12 34.05 </p><p>Soil para-meters </p><p>T1* T2 T6 T10 Level </p><p>Soil bulk density </p><p>1.11 1.18 1.20 1.26 </p><p>Soil WHC 34.93 37.07 31.91 37.12 Soil Nitrogen (N) </p><p>57.11 88.70 92.41 88.00 </p><p>Soil fungal diversity </p><p>5.5 6.5 7.5 18.5 </p><p>Soil bacterial population </p><p>19.5 11.00 41.5 28.5 </p><p>* T1- Control (FYM-.25kg/sqm), T2- Vermicompost (1kg/sqm), T6 Char(1kg/sqm), T10- BioC+ (1kg/Sqm) </p></li><li><p>Cook stove 2 days cooking </p><p> 0.8 kg </p><p>Charcoal </p><p>40 kg </p><p>Single house 50 HH Month </p><p>1.2 ton </p><p> Rs. 9.6 </p><p> Rs. 480 </p><p> Rs. 14400 </p><p>* Rs. 12/kg wood biochar in odisha </p><p>Above Value = 10 cook stoves </p><p>5 Months </p><p>4 Months </p><p>Gestation period to get refund of cook stove cost </p><p>Required time to get biochar for second crop </p><p>Sustainability </p></li><li><p>Conclus...</p></li></ul>

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