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  • Promotion of Clean Emission Charcoal Productivity by cost effective technologies at field scale:

    Use of Biochar

    in Kitchen Garden

    Jay Anand 6/7/2015

    Project undertaken with the financial support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), www.idrc.ca, and the Government of Canada, provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD), www.international.gc.ca

    http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.idrc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.international.gc.ca/http://www.devalt.org/http://www.carbonneutralcommons.org/

  • Stubble burning to create Artificial smog

    Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=82409

  • Adaptation Measures on Biochar Improves farm productivity More moisture & More Nutrients Enhance nutrient use efficiency Keeps Carbon largely intact

    Community Reliance

    The Science & Policy of Biochar

    our field experience and many researchers ascertained that it is good for the soil pH (raises), supplies nutrients, improves water retention improved productivity Traps carbon in soil for the long term (100s or 1000s of years) climate change mitigation

    Why are we interested in biochar?

  • Definitions

    Charcoal: Pyrolysed wood as a clean-burning energy-dense (bio)fuel

    Biochar: Biomass pyrolysed to store carbon, recycle nutrients and enhance structure and function of soil in agriculture.

    Both can be produced cleanly, with correct Technology

  • Definitions

    C, H, O

    C, H, O

    C

    air smoke

    char

    C, H, O

    C, H, O

    C

    Heat

    Heat

    Source: UK Biochar Research centre

  • Conversion process has an effect

    CharChar

    Char

    Vapouror oil

    Vapouror oil

    Gas

    Gas

    Gas

    0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%

    100%

    Slowpyrolysis

    Fastpyrolysis

    Gasif-ication

    mins-hours seconds < 1 second

    Indicative mass

    fractions from biomass

    conversion

    Typical product mix for biomass conversions

    UK Biochar Research centre

  • fossil carbon

    (energy)

    CO2

    biomass C

    fossil C

    pyrolysis

    soil C biochar C

    2

    7Gty-1

    60Gty-1?

    ?

    photosynthesis

    Drivers: making biochar stabilises C and stores it in soil

    60 Gt / yr

    7 Gt / yr

    60 Gt / yr

  • Chris Watts, Rothamsted Research

    Carbon in soil is associated with soil structure and function but as organic matter

  • Biochar and carbon purpose or benefit?

    Carbon storage with (local) agronomic benefit, or Agricultural product with carbon storage benefit?

    Carbon storage is one-off and simple to ascertain but its current / future value is not certain

    could provide an important incentive to develop and test the agronomic value of biochar

  • Biochar is distinct from other organic matter added to soil its diverse properties matter

    and not all biochar looks or behaves the same

    UK Biochar Research centre (UKBRC)

  • Effects on plant productivity: unpredictable, small on average and under-estimated?

    Change in crop productivity with biochar addition to soil100%0%40% 20%

    Jeffery et al., 2011, AGEE

    Change in crop productivity with biochar addition to soil100%0%40% 20%

    Jeffery et al., 2011, AGEE

  • Raw Material situation

    Vermi-Compost

    Biochar

    Sources

    Crop Residues

    wood Residues Exotic

    Byproduct Rice husk Char

    Centralized De -Centralized

    Field Level

    1

    2

    3

    Indigenous

    Excess at field

    Y N

    Y N

    Y N

    Y N

    Y N Wood Char

    Cassava Y N

    Y N Govt.

    Institution

    Agencies

    Y N

    Y N

    * Costs are need to explore, rice husk at salem

    Centralized De -Centralized

    Forest depo Y N

    Y N Y N

    Y N Y N

    Paddy Y N

  • Different people/locations are interested in biochar for different reasons ....

    State1/ location

    Interest in biochar, modest () to strong () Soil quality/ productivity

    C sequestration/ climate change mitigation

    Bioenergy production

    Waste management

    Odisha Kolli hills

    Different stakeholders (government, farmers etc.) are interested in different things Interest and perspective may change ... In 5 years, 10 years etc.??? 13

  • Bicochar (Gasification process Cook stove/retort/ drum & Earth kiln)

    Field Application (Acidic Soil)

    Biomass growth (Plant/ Vegetable)

    Analyze chemical properties of soil - PH (Before & After)

    Crop root analysis

    Expected Outcomes

    Social, Gender, Environment & Economical benefits

    Fuel wood Agri residues

    Micro industry waste Rice husk Char

    Fertile Soil Sub Soil

    Available Choice

    Selection

    Biochar

    Land Use

    Upland Low Land Kitchen garden

    Performance

    Cottage industry

  • Developing Typologies

    Some factors that might affect biochar suitability (+ = suitable; ++= very suitable; - = unsuitable; -- = very unsuitable; -/+ = mixed or uncertain

    suitability).

    Location Biochar status (product type)

    Cost/tech level

    Source of feedstock

    1ary 2ndary waste high med/ low

    Plentiful/ available (climate)

    Scarce/ competing

    uses /scattered

    Rural, community level

    - + ++ -- -/+ + +

    Rural "niche"1 -/+ ++ ++ + ++ ++ +

    15

  • Hypothesis to study synergistic response in growth of crop/vegetable

    when biodigester effluent will combined with/ without Biochar

  • Sub questions to address CC adaptation?

    Is all biochar (different agri residues) the same? How stable (mean residence time) is biochar in soil?

    Is biochar/biochar compost (Clean/ contaminated)

    safe to use in Alkaline/Acidic soil?

    What are the agronomic benefits (crop productivity through increased nutrient use efficiency, increased water-holding capacity and decreased bulk density)?

  • Interested to go through Biochar sampling .....

    What are the main soil constraints? e.g. N, P, pH. How well do biochars made from the feedstocks in the

    area address these? Which feedstock/biochar comes out best? Optimization of biochar production fit of selection with current demands/uses best biochar!

    18

  • Situation Analysis for both research sites

    Time (15 days) to apply char in Agriculture field (Upper, Lowland) Crop is standing in Kitchen garden and limited space to do

    experiment As per local climate and acidic soil (Expert advice India &

    Abroad): Apply Biochar compost instead of Biochar only 15 days are required to mature biochar compost Kitchen gardens are best field to apply biochar compost at this

    point of time Selection of field (time constraints/unexpected rain Odisha &

    KH) Two different ways either you wait until harvesting or apply

    char immediately and compare with control vs. experimental plot

  • Soil Health +

    Energy Saving (3) Livelihood

    (2,3) Gender

    Biochar

    Energy Saving

    -Increase farm/ kitchen garden production -per crop income -Reclamination of degraded soil - Biochar sale

    -Dredging -Reduce fuel wood consumption -Increase HH income -Waste management

    - pH, mineral nutrients and labile carbon - Water retention Sandy & loamy soils (Black & Red) - GHG suppression, limiting diffuse, water pollution - Long term impacts: change in microbial community, carbon neutralizing

    (1) Introduce Cook stove & Kiln

    (4) Kitchen garden + Field

    (5) nutrition

    Policy (9)

    Conceptual framework

  • Conceptual framework 1. Developing and deploying location specific, socially inclusive innovative char application

    to increase productivity in farm agriculture 2. Harnessing the strength the women and men in working together, their skill in processing

    of farm produces and their readiness to get out of drudgery in processing 3. Relative ease in promotion of local food for cultivation, consumption and value addition

    analysis, nutrition and income 4. Developing value chain for farm produces, involving network of women SHGs and

    supported by skill development, access to char credit, market linkage, and also char advocacy (no chemical fertilizers)

    5. The potential of off livelihood option for employment and income generation particularly to women and landless labourers

    6. Improved food and nutritional security with diversity in food basket and choice of crops to address chronic and hidden hunger

    7. Sustaining the change through its institutionalization and training and capacity building of all stakeholders

    8. Project management with built in mechanism for periodic assessment of the outcome/ effectiveness of project interventions, course corrections in sync calibrated social altitude to technology.

    9. Holistic integration of crop farming, better management of natural resources (Land, water and biodiversity), improve char recycling, increase carbon sequestration, and need based, regulated use of agro chemical for pro nature sustainable change

  • Biochar Case Study Locations