Progression of Learning in Secondary School Chemistry ... Secondary School Chemistry Secondary V Optional Program August 22, 2011 1. Table of Contents Progression of Learning in Secondary School 3

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<ul><li><p>Progression of Learningin Secondary School</p><p>ChemistrySecondary V Optional Program</p><p>August 22, 2011</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>Table of Contents</p><p>Progression of Learning in Secondary School 3</p><p>Introduction 5</p><p>Gases 6</p><p>Energy changes in reactions 8</p><p>Reaction rate 10</p><p>Chemical equilibrium 12</p><p>Techniques 15</p><p>Strategies 17</p><p>Reproduction rightsEducational institutions are authorized to reproduce this document in whole or in part. If copies are sold, the price mustnot exceed the cost of reproduction. This document is available at:[ www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/progression/secondaire/index_en.asp ]</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>Progression of Learning in Secondary School</p><p>The progression of learning in secondary school constitutes a complement to each school subject, providing furtherinformation on the knowledge that the students must acquire and be able to use in each year of secondary school. Thistool is intended to assist teachers in planning both their teaching and the learning that their students are to acquire.</p><p>The role of knowledge in learning</p><p>The knowledge that young people acquire enables them to better understand the world in which they live. From a veryearly age, within their families and through contact with the media and with friends, they accumulate and learn to use anincreasingly greater body of knowledge. The role of the school should be to progressively broaden, deepen and structurethis knowledge.</p><p>Knowledge and competencies must mutually reinforce each other. On the one hand, knowledge becomes consolidatedwhen it is used and, on the other hand, the exercise of competencies entails the acquisition of new knowledge. Helpingyoung people acquire knowledge raises the challenging question of how to make this knowledge useful and durable, andthus evokes the notion of competency. For example, we can never be really assured that a grammar rule has beenassimilated until it is used appropriately in a variety of texts and contexts that go beyond the confines of a repetitive,targeted exercise.</p><p>Intervention by the teacher</p><p>The role of the teacher in knowledge acquisition and competency development is essential, and he or she must intervenethroughout the learning process. In effect, the Education Act confers on the teacher the right to select methods ofinstruction corresponding to the requirements and objectives fixed for each group or for each student entrusted to hiscare. It is therefore the teachers responsibility to adapt his or her instruction and to base it on a variety of strategies,whether this involves lecture-based teaching for the entire class, individualized instruction for a student or a small group ofstudents, a series of exercises to be done, a team activity or a particular project to be carried out.</p><p>In order to meet the needs of students with learning difficulties, teachers should encourage their participation in theactivities designed for the whole class, although support measures should also be provided, when necessary. These mightinvolve more targeted teaching of certain key elements of knowledge, or they might take the form of other specializedinterventions.</p><p>As for the evaluation of learning, it serves two essential functions. Firstly, it enables us to look at the students learning inorder to guide and support them effectively. Secondly, it enables us to verify the extent to which the students haveacquired the expected learning. Whatever its function, in accordance with the Policy on the Evaluation of Learning,evaluation should focus on the acquisition of knowledge and the students ability to use this knowledge effectively incontexts that draw upon their competencies.</p><p>Structure</p><p>The progression of learning is presented in the form of tables that organize the elements of knowledge similarly to the waythey are organized in the subject-specific programs. In mathematics, for example, learning is presented in fields: arithmetic,geometry, etc. For subjects that continue on from elementary school, the Progression of Learning in Secondary Schoolhas been harmonized with the Progression of Learning in Elementary School. Every element of learning indicated isassociated with one or more years of secondary school during which it is formally taught.</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>A uniform legend is used for all subjects. The legend employs three symbols: an arrow, a star and a shaded box. What isexpected of the student is described as follows:</p><p>Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.</p><p>Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.</p><p>Student reinvests knowledge.</p><p>An arrow indicates that teaching must be planned in a way that enables students to begin acquiring knowledge during theschool year and continue or conclude this process in the following year, with ongoing systematic intervention from theteacher.</p><p>A star indicates that the teacher must plan for the majority of students to have acquired this knowledge by the end of theschool year.</p><p>A shaded box indicates that the teacher must plan to ensure that this knowledge will be applied during the school year.</p><p>4</p></li><li><p>Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program</p><p>Introduction</p><p>This document provides additional information about the learning prescribed in the optional Secondary V Chemistryprogram. It is intended to help teachers with their lesson planning.</p><p>To progress in their learning, students need to do more than merely acquire knowledge. They must also learn to applytheir knowledge in a variety of increasingly complex situations. By appropriately using the knowledge, techniques andstrategies listed in this document, they will develop the competencies outlined in the Chemistry program. By applying thesecompetencies, they will acquire new knowledge which, in turn, will help them further develop their competencies.</p><p>In order to seek answers or solutions to chemistry problems (Competency 1), students must become familiar with strategiesand acquire conceptual and technical knowledge that will enable them to define a problem, explore it and then justify theirmethodological choices and results. Similarly, the appropriate scientific concepts and principles can help them explainphenomena or understand the operation of objects and, consequently, make use of their scientific and technologicalknowledge (Competency 2). Finally, in order to communicate ideas relating to questions involving chemistry (Competency3), they must acquire and apply knowledge that will enable them to interpret or produce messages using the languagesand types of representations specific to science and technology.</p><p>In Secondary Cycle One, students learn about natural phenomena and man-made objects that interest them. In Cycle Two,the concepts are organized around applications connected to seven technological fields, in the Applied Science andTechnology General Education Path, or environmental issues in the General Education Path or in the optional programs inSecondary 4.</p><p>The four tables in this document outline the knowledge related to the general concepts presented in the chemistryprogram: gases, energy changes in reactions, reaction rates and chemical equilibrium. Each table is preceded by a textexplaining how knowledge of the general concept contributes to the students learning in chemistry. This is followed by alist of the main concepts studied in Secondary Cycle One and related to this general concept. Lastly, the table itself lists acertain number of statements that refer to subject matter covered during Secondary Cycle Two and that is relevant to thestudy of concepts in the chemistry program. Two other tables provide information about the appropriate techniques andstrategies for students to use.</p><p>The concepts are further clarified by a list of statements indicating the degree of complexity of the subject matter targetedand explanations of the progression of learning from one year to the next. In some cases, specifications about the extent ofthe knowledge to be addressed appear in parentheses.</p><p>1. Only those concepts specific to the Chemistry program are identified by a number.</p><p>1</p><p>5</p></li><li><p>Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program</p><p>Gases</p><p>Studying the behaviour of gases gives students the opportunity to acquire scientific and technical knowledge ofphenomena and applications that involve the physical properties of gases.</p><p>Over the course of their secondary school education, students have explored increasingly complex phenomena, problemsand applications. They have acquired knowledge related to The Material World, The Living World, The Earth and Spaceand The Technological World. By using the experimental method, modelling and carrying out analysis, they are able todescribe, understand and explain the laws and models governing the behaviour of gases. Students learn to apply this newknowledge in a variety of contexts to explain phenomena or make predictions. In this way, they acquire a betterunderstanding of the behaviour of gases in the world around us and of the related applications.</p><p>Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.</p><p>Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.</p><p>Student reinvests knowledge.</p><p>Secondary</p><p>ASTAST</p><p>SE</p><p>STST</p><p>ESTCHE</p><p>3 4 3 4 5</p><p>Secondary Cycle OneMass</p><p>Defines the concept of massVolume</p><p>Defines the concept of volumeTemperature</p><p>Describes the effect of heat on the degree of agitation of particlesDefines temperature as a measurement of the degree of agitation of particles</p><p>States of matterNames the different phase changes of matter</p><p>Characteristic propertiesAssociates a characteristic property of a substance or material with its use (e.g. metal is used to make pots because itis a good conductor of heat)</p><p>Physical ChangesRecognizes different physical changes</p><p>MoleculeDescribes a molecule using Dalton's atomic model (combination of atoms linked by chemical bonds)</p><p>Secondary Cycle TwoOnly those concepts specific to the Chemistry program are identified by a number.Light blue shading indicates that the student acquired this knowledge in Secondary III or IV.</p><p>Chemical properties of gases1.</p><p>Reactivitya.</p><p>Associates the use of certain gases in various applications with theirchemical reactivity (e.g. argon in light bulbs, nitrogen in bags of chips,acetylene in welding torches)</p><p>i. </p><p>Compressible and incompressible fluids</p><p>Distinguishes between compressible and incompressible fluids </p><p>Physical properties of gases2.</p><p>Kinetic theorya.</p><p>Explains the macroscopic behaviour of a gas (e.g. compressibility,expansion, diffusion) using kinetic theory</p><p>i. </p><p>Pressure</p><p>Defines pressure as the force exerted by particles when they collide with a constrictingsurface</p><p>Describes qualitatively the main factors that affect the pressure exerted by a fluid </p><p>1</p><p>6</p></li><li><p>Relationship between pressure and volume</p><p>Describes qualitatively the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas(e.g. inhaling and exhaling, bicycle pump)</p><p>Avogadros number</p><p>Expresses a quantity of particles using Avogadros number </p><p>Concept of the mole</p><p>Defines the mole as the unit of measure of the amount of a substance </p><p>Expresses an amount of a substance in moles </p><p>General gas lawb.</p><p>Determines the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its volumewhen the temperature and number of moles of gas are kept constant</p><p>i. </p><p>Determines the relationship between the pressure of a gas and itstemperature when the number of moles of gas and the volume are keptconstant</p><p>ii. </p><p>Determines the relationship between the volume of a gas and itstemperature when the pressure and the number of moles of gas are keptconstant</p><p>iii. </p><p>Determines the relationship between the pressure of a gas and the numberof moles of that gas when the volume and temperature are kept constant</p><p>iv. </p><p>Determines the relationship between the volume of a gas and the numberof moles of that gas when the temperature and pressure are kept constant</p><p>v. </p><p>Applies the mathematical relationship between the pressure, volume,number of moles and temperature of a gas (p1V1/n1T1 = p2V2/n2T2)</p><p>vi. </p><p>Ideal gas lawc.</p><p>Explains qualitatively the relationship between the factors affecting thebehaviour of gases (pressure, volume, number of moles, temperature) in agiven situation (e.g. a balloon exposed to cold, the operation of a bicyclepump)</p><p>i.</p><p>Applies the mathematical relationship between the pressure, volume andnumber of moles of a gas, the ideal gas constant and the temperature of agas (pV = nRT)</p><p>ii. </p><p>Daltons lawd.</p><p>Explains qualitatively the law of partial pressuresi. </p><p>Applies the mathematical relationship between the total pressure of amixture of gases and the partial pressures of the component gases(ptotal = ppA + ppB + ppC + )</p><p>ii. </p><p>Avogadros hypothesise.</p><p>Uses Avogadros hypothesis to predict the number of molecules in equalvolumes of gases subjected to the same temperature and pressure</p><p>i. </p><p>Molar volume of a gasf.</p><p>Calculates the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature andpressure</p><p>i. </p><p>Calculates the molar volume of a gas at standard ambient temperature andpressure</p><p>ii. </p><p>Determines the number of moles of a gas at a given temperature andpressure</p><p>iii. </p><p>1. Application is understood to mean a technical object, a system, a product or a process.</p><p>7</p></li><li><p>Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program</p><p>Energy changes in reactions</p><p>Studying energy changes in reactions gives students the opportunity to acquire scientific and technical knowledge ofphenomena and applications involving endothermic and exothermic reactions.</p><p>Over the course of their secondary school education, students have explored increasingly complex phenomena, problemsand applications. They have acquired knowledge related to The Material World, The Living World, The Earth and Spaceand The Technological World. By using the experimental method, modelling and carrying out analysis, they are able todescribe, understand and explain the laws and models governing energy changes in reactions. Students learn to apply thisnew knowledge in a variety of contexts to explain phenomena or make predictions. In this way, they acquire a betterunderstanding of energy changes in the world around us and of the related applications. </p><p>Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.</p><p>Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.</p><p>Student reinvests knowledge.</p><p>Secondary</p><p>ASTAST</p><p>SE</p><p>STST</p><p>ESTCHE</p><p>3 4 3 4 5</p><p>Secondary Cycle OneChemical Change</p><p>Describes the indicators of a chemical change (formation of a precipitate, effervescence, colour change, heat, light)Atom</p><p>Defines the atom as the basic unit of the moleculeMolecule</p><p>Represents the formation of a molecule using Dalton's atomic model</p><p>Secondary Cycle TwoOnly those concepts specific to the Chemistry program are identified by a number.Light blue shading indicates that the student acquired this knowledge in Secondary III or IV.</p><p>Forms of energy</p><p>Defines joule as the unit of measurement for energy </p><p>Combustion</p><p>Describes the perceivable manifestations of rapid combustion (e.g. heat, light) </p><p>Endothermic and exothermic reactions</p><p>Distinguishes an endothermic reaction from an exothermic reaction according toperceptible signs (e.g. temperature variations, emission of light) </p><p>Distinguishes an en...</p></li></ul>