Professionals - Wildfires - Preparedness part 1

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E-Learning in Storms

E-Learning for WildfiresProfessionals

1

PreparednessThis module on wildfire preparedness is divided into three parts which cover the following topics:

Part 1 - How to plan and prepare for wildfiresPart 2 - How to train and exercise for wildfiresPart 3 - How to warn and inform the public

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters2

Wildfire Preparedness Part 1:

How to plan and prepare for wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters3

Fire BehaviourThis is the first part of the module on wildfire preparedness and will cover the following topics:

Why is planning for wildfires important?Identifying and assessing wildfire riskFormulate strategic plans for wildfireFormulate local plans for wildfire

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters4

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters5Introduction: Why is planning for wildfires important?

Why is planning important? Firstly, as seen in the Wildfire Prevention module, wildfires can have devastating impacts:

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters6Source: Junta de Andalucia (Spain)

on the environment

on life

Source: Frederiksborg Fire and Rescue Service (Denmark)

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters7

on property

on energy supplies

Why is planning important? Source: Junta de Andalucia (Spain)

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters8 on heritage and culture

Why is planning important? on infrastructure and the ability to move around as normal

Source: SPEIS Ayto. Alcala de Guadaira (Spain)

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters9

Why is planning important? and on the economy Source: Junta de Andalucia (Spain)

Secondly, climate change predictions for Europe state wildfires will become more frequent and long-lasting, causing more damage and disruption:

The consequences of climate change can already be noted through the increase in the frequency of natural disasters. In Europe, according to the Emergency Database of Disasters (EMDAT), the number of natural disasters reported increased from 43 in 1974-1978 to 288 in 1999-2003. All the agencies working on monitoring climate change agree that, in the future, such consequences will intensify with the weather and temperatures being more extreme. This will result in natural disasters such as wildfires being more frequent and longer-lasting. (Source: EEA 2007: Europes Environment, the fourth assessment)

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters10Why is planning important?

Why will climate change increase frequency and impact of wildfires?

Climate change causes more extreme weather:Warmer Springs and Summers = more drying of fuels = more fuel available to burnWetter summers some years = more fuel growthColder Winters = more dead fuels available to burn

Combined these trends are will lead to an increase in frequency and impact of wildfirese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters11Why is planning important?

Thirdly, climate change predictions are also supported by projected changes in fire danger.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters12Why is planning important?

Source: Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Thirdly, climate change predictions are also supported by projected changes in fire danger.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters13Why is planning important?

Source: Joint Research Centre (JRC)IMPORTANT: Increase in fire danger are projected across the whole of Europe!

What is fire danger and why is a projected increase important?

Fire danger is a quantitative (numerical) assessment and indicator of the ease of ignition, rate of spread, difficulty of control and likely impact of a wildfire in a location at a given point in time.

In short, fire danger tells us how dangerous a wildfire would be if one started.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters14Why is planning important?

What is fire danger and why is a projected increase important?

Fire danger is a quantitative (numerical) assessment and indicator of the ease of ignition, rate of spread, difficulty of control and likely impact of a wildfire in a location at a given point in time.

In short, fire danger tells us how dangerous a wildfire would be if one started.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters15Why is planning important? IMPORTANT: A projected increase in fire danger indicates that wildfires will become more dangerous across Europe!

It is for these three key reasons that it is vitally important that all countries in Europe plan for wildfires.

Wildfires are no longer just an issue for the Mediterranean they are and will continue to affect the whole of Europe.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters16Why is planning important?

To learn more about wildfire fire news and history in Europe visit the European Forest Fire Information Service (EFFIS) website

To learn more about projected changes in fire danger in Europe, visit: the European Environment Agency website

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters17Why is planning important? Find out more about

Visit the following websites to learn more about Fire Danger Rating Systems (FDRS) and Fire Weather forecasts around the world:

Canadian Forest Fire Weather IndexUnited States National Park Service Understanding Fire DangerFDRS in New ZealandFDRS for South East Asia Fire Danger Ratings in Western AustraliaEuropean Fire Information System (EFFIS) - Europe

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters18Why is planning important? Find out more about

Planning and preparedness for wildfires should follow a simple four-phase process.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters19How to plan for wildfires

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters20The key phases are now briefly explained:Plan identify the risks / threats and what you can do to mitigate, minimise or deal with them Do identify the resources you have available and any gaps which you might need to address to deal with the risk / threatCheck that your plans are deliverable, train and exercise and make everyone involved aware of the plansAct when required, implement the plans and identify any changes required and implement them review and revise the plans

How to plan for wildfires

The planning phase itself can be broken down into a number of important elements. The following elements will be explained within this module:

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters211. Identify and assess wildfire riskHow to plan for wildfires

The planning phase itself can be broken down into a number of important elements. The following elements will be explained within this module:

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters221. Identify and assess wildfire riskHow to plan for wildfires2. Formulate Plans

The planning phase itself can be broken down into a number of important elements. The following elements will be explained within this module:

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters231. Identify and assess wildfire riskHow to plan for wildfires2. Formulate Plans2. a) Formulate Strategic Plans2. b) Formulate Local Plans

The planning phase itself can be broken down into a number of important elements. The following elements will be explained within this module:

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters241. Identify and assess wildfire riskHow to plan for wildfires2. Formulate Plans2. a) Formulate Strategic Plans2. b) Formulate Local PlansDetection, notification and mobilisation of resourcesAgreements with other agencies and stakeholdersProvision and allocation of appropriate resourcesProvision of appropriate trainingProvision of welfare

The planning phase itself can be broken down into a number of important elements. The following elements will be explained within this module:

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters251. Identify and assess wildfire riskHow to plan for wildfires2. Formulate Plans2. a) Formulate Strategic Plans2. b) Formulate Local PlansDetection, notification and mobilisation of resources3. Continuously review and revise plansAgreements with other agencies and stakeholdersProvision and allocation of appropriate resourcesProvision of appropriate trainingProvision of welfare

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters26How to plan for wildfires

Step 1: Identify and Assess Risk

How to plan for wildfiresPlanning must start by identifying and assessing wildfire risk.

Fire and rescue services and other stakeholders need to identify and assess wildfire risk within their area of responsibility.

When identifying and assessing wildfire risk, consideration should be given to the following: The causes of ignitionHistorical dataLikely impact of fire events on local communities and the environmentAwareness of local, regional and national weather conditionsVegetation and fuelTopography

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters27

How to plan for wildfiresPlanning must start by identifying and assessing wildfire risk.

Fire and rescue services and other stakeholders need to identify and assess wildfire risk within their area of responsibility.

When identifying and assessing wildfire risk, consideration should be given to the following: The causes of ignitionHistorical dataLikely impact of fire events on local communities and the environmentAwareness of local, regional and national weather conditionsVegetation and fuelTopography

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters28Each of these considerations will now be explained in turn.

Understand the causes of ignitionWhat are the main causes of wildfires in your area?What data do you have to support this? Is the data complete and reliable?Are fire investigations routinely completed to identify the causes of wildfires? If not, how can you be sure you know what the actual causes of wildfires are?Evidence from fire investigations is crucial for the development and implementation of effective wildfire prevention activitiese-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters29

How to plan for wildfiresSource: Junta de Andalucia (Spain)Photo (below): Identifying the Cause of a Wildfire during a Fire Investigation

Understand the causes of ignition

Information and evidence gathered during fire investigations is crucial for:Developing and implementing effective wildfire prevention activitiesDeveloping appropriate wildfire preparedness plansAssessing and evaluating wildfire responseIdentifying lessons learned and improving current practices

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters30How to plan for wildfires

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters31How to plan for wildfires

Fire investigation for wildfires requires specialist knowledge and training. Visit the following websites to learn more about fire investigation of wildfires:

EUROPE - Wildfire Investigation Course 2015USA - Wildfire Origin and Cause Determination Handbook National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG), USAAUSTRALIA - Australian training package in serial wildfire arson investigation goes international

Find out more about

The videos on the following page provides more information about fire investigation at wildfire incidents.

The videos provide an introduction to the processes used in fire investigation and some of the indicators that fire investigators can use to investigate wildfires and determine the point of origin and cause of ignition. Please be aware that processes and procedures can vary according to different national and local legislation and practices.e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters32How to plan for wildfires

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XBPFK-lvrPEe-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters33

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCdkrXliZAIe-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters34

Analyse historical data

Where have fires occurred in the past?How much damage did they cause? What were the weather conditions at the time?When do wildfires tend to occur? Why may this be the case?Are there any identifiable trends? For example, have previous wildfires occurred in particular locations and/or during particular weather conditions? What were the impacts of previous wildfires? You should consider impacts on life, property, environment, infrastructure, economy and local communities.

e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters35How to plan for wildfires

Assess the likely impact on local communities

Potential impacts can be wide ranging, but some of the issues to consider when identifying and assessing risk are:

How would a wildfire affect the local community?Could a wildfire affect telecommunications and the road infrastructure?Could a wildfire entrap members of the local community?Are evacuation plans needed for specific communities?e-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters36How to plan for wildfires

Analyse national, regional and local weather patterns

Analysis of weather conditions recorded during previous wildfires can help to identify trends and patternsFor example, large wildfires which are difficult to contain may occur during particular weather conditions perhaps during dry periods and/or when winds blow from a particular directionIdentification of trends can help identify when and where wildfire risk may be greatest which can in turn be used to develop effective: preparedness plansresponse planse-Learning for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural Disasters37How to plan for wildfires

Source: Junta de Andalucia (Spain)Photo (below): Using Analysis of Weather Patterns and Topography to Predict Potential Fire Spread

Understand the vegetation and fuel within your area

What vegetation and fuel is available to burn?How does it burn?How does fire spread through t...