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  • Private Equity Report on India

    Private Equity Company India Page 1

    Private Equity

    Investments in India

  • Private Equity Report on India

    Private Equity Company India Page 2

    Table of Contents

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

    Matrix of PE cycle .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

    Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

    The Indian PE History:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

    Key findings from our analysis of PE-VC investments over the years: ................................................................................................................................................. 7

    Sector wise past trend analysis from 2004-2008.9

    Sector wise Investments' and analysis from 2004-2008 10

    Present Scenario of P E in India ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

    Key findings from our analysis of PE-VC in the current scenario ....................................................................................................................................................... 13

    Present opportunity for PE firms in India ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

    Education18

    Health care18

    Clean tech or renewable energy18

    Food Processing 18

    Infrastructure ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

    Automotive sector .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 19

    Manufacturing sector ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

    Growth in Indias manufacturing sector ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19

    Key driver for the growth of P E in India ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

    Drivers for the growth ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21

    Key PE deal drivers in India ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

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    Private Equity Company India Page 3

    Room for new PE players in the market .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

    Challenges for PE players in India ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 23

    Legalities for foreign PE players ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

    Overview of Tax and Regulations in India .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

    DTAA ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26

    Opportunity for International PE players in India .............................................................................................................................................................................. 27

    Deal opportunities .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 28

    Due diligence and Valuation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 29

    Due diligence can be performed in all the areas mentioned below .................................................................................................................................................. 29

    Exit opportunities ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 29

    5 forces Analysis for Private Equity Company in India ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 30

    Entry barrier ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

    Threat of substitutes .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

    Power of Buyer ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

    Power of supplier ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

    Competitiveness of the Industry ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 32

    SWOT Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

    Strength .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33

    Weakness ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33

    Opportunity ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33

    Threats ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33

    Proposed USP of Private Equity Company in India .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 34

    Recommendation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34

    Conclusion.36

  • Private Equity Report on India

    Private Equity Company India Page 4

    Introduction

    The PE Report gives an overview of the PE investments in India. The report presents the past investments, highlights the upcoming

    industry for future investments, tax efficiency for foreign investments, etc. The research team has also done SWOT analysis and 5

    forces analysis in the report. This will give a reader an idea for market positioning and USP for Private Equity Company in India.

    Matrix of PE cycle

    Sourcing from LP's and GP's

    Deal flow, Investing

    Value creation

    Exit

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    Private Equity Company India Page 5

    Executive Summary

    1. After a setback in PE investment in 2008, 2010 rebounded with big investments of Euro 6.5 billon compared to Euro 2.90

    billion in 2009. First quarter of 2011 has already reported investments of Euro 2.25 billion.

    2. Non-financial services, infrastructure, telecom etc. has been the favorite PE investment avenues till date.

    3. India remains an attractive market for international investors because of its fast economic development, political factors,

    large numbers of English speaking population, large talent pool, etc.

    4. PE firms seeking to raise approximately Euro 24 billion in 2011. The bulk of new capital will continue to come from offshore

    investors that face fewer restrictions and are freer from complex tax and legal burdens

    5. DTAA (double taxation avoidance agreement) helps international investors to remit their funds out of India without paying

    any tax. Please find the details on the KPMG report enclosed.

    6. Infrastructure and Manufacturing sector holds lot of promises for PE investment followed by upcoming sectors like Education,

    food processing etc.

    7. According to industry experts the real action and the biggest need of capital for capital in India is for companies under Euro 40

    million in revenue.

    8. International PE firms biggest challenge while working with Indian companies is that the majority are family run businesses

    and generally there is a lack of corporate governance. To overcome this, industry experts suggest the Investment manager

    should know family dynamics well.

    9. Other than the capital, PE firms should bring the expertise of technology, governance, etc. as well, which has direct

    implications on the efficiency of the Investee Company.

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    10. The opportunities of the SWOT analysis can be the USP for Private Equity Company in India. There can be the value creation

    by giving investee companies exposure to the European market, Chinese market/sourcing, global strategies (strategic alliances

    with European companies for value addition and may be at time of exit) and corporate governance.

    11. One of the threats can be the introduction of a new Tax law in India in April 2012 called DTC (Direct Tax Code); which could

    apply tax on capital gains on foreign investment. However industry experts suggest that the international tax treaty will be

    respected.

    12. For exit opportunities Private Equity Company has an upper hand. At the time of exit they can have strategic alliance with a

    European company, IPO overseas or selling it to an international PE.

    13. In order to create something valuable between India, France and China cross learning, transfer of knowledge and close

    cooperation will play a key role.

    The Indian PE History:

    In India, private equity is reasonably young, dating back to the mid-1990s. Indian companies received almost no Private Equity (PE)

    or Venture Capital (VC) funding prior to mid-90s. The environment heated up in the end of the 90s with the IT boom, with

    companies in IT. This scenario began to change in the late 1990s with the growth of Indias IT companies and with the simultaneous

    dot-com boom in India. VCs started making large investments in these sectors; however, the bust that followed led to huge losses

    for the PE and VC community, especially for those who had invested heavily in start-ups and early-stage companies. After almost

    three years of downturn in 2001-2003, the PE market began to recover towards the end of 2004. PE investors began investing in

    India again, except this time they began investing in other sectors as well (although the IT and BPO sectors still continued to receive

    a significant portion of these investments) and most investments were in late-stage companies. Early-stage investments have been

    dwindling or have, at best, remained stagnant right through mid-2007. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of these firms,

  • Private Equity Report on India

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    with Indias stock markets booming and sectors like the life sciences, infrastructure and most recently real estate being growth

    stories for the future. Global firms such as Warburg Pincus, Blackstone, Sequoia Capital and the Carlyle Group have a presence in

    India, while Indian players like ICICI Venture and ChrysCapital are vital players in the industry.

    PE-VC investments in India have witnessed a phenomenal growth both in terms of amount invested (from Euro 1.2 billion in 2004 to

    EURO 15 billion in 2007 before tapering off to EURO 5.5 billion in 2008) as well as the number of deals (from 80 in 2004 to 481 in

    2007 and then slowing down to 297 in 2008).

    Key findings from our analysis of PE-VC investments (2004-08):

    1. The PE-VC investment activity in India is becoming more matured and broad based. It has undergone a complete overhaul

    during the 5 year period ending 2008. While 4 out of 10 industry classes accounted for more than 80% of PE investments in

    2004, investments are much more evenly distributed across the 10 industry classes in 2008. The figure below gives the

    snapshot of the deals, their value across the ten industries in the India from 2004 to 2008.

    Table 3- Industry wise split-up of investment activities for each year (2004-2008)

    INDUSTRY YEAR WISE INVESTMENT IN Euros YEAR WISE NO. OF DEALS AVERAGE AMOUNT PER DEAL IN EURO

    2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008

    IT&ITES 1638(26%) 973(6.5%) 644(11.7%) 71(18.5%) 77(16.0%) 68(22.9%) 23.1 23.1 9.5

    Computer-Hardware 46(0.75%) 170(1.1%) 90(1.6%) 5(1.3%) 13(2.7%) 8(2.7%) 9.2 9.2 11.21

    Healthcare 400(6.5%) 509(3.4%) 332(6.0%) 40(10.4%) 36(7.5%) 28(9.4%) 10 10 11.9

    Manufacturing 124(11.7%) 1131(7.6%) 507(9.2%) 80(20.8%) 75(15.6%) 35(11.8%) 10.1 10.1 14.5 Engineering and Construction 827(13.4%) 2001(13.4%) 1519(27.5%) 48(12.5%) 59(12.3%) 49(16.5%) 17.2 17.2 31

    Telecom&Media 1019(16.5%) 3195(21.3%) 826(14.9%) 14(3.6%) 37(7.7%) 21(7.07%) 72.8 72.8 39.3

    Transportation & Logistics 352(5.7%) 633(4.2%) 271(4.9%) 27(7.0%) 29(6.0%) 12(4.0%) 13.1 13.1 22.6

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    Financial services 1129(18.3%) 5250(35.1%) 606(11%) 44(11.4%) 87(18.1%) 31(10.4%) 25.7 60.3 19.5

    Non-Financial services 414(6.7%) 810(5.4%) 421(7.6%) 30(7.8%) 49(10.2%) 32(10.8%) 13.8 16.5 13.2

    Others 234(3.8%) 297(1.9%) 304(5.5%) 25(6.5%) 19(3.9%) 13(4.4%) 9.36 15.6 23.4

    Table 4- Financing Stage wise split- up of investment activities for each year ( 2004-2008)

    FINANCING STAGE YEAR WISE INVESTMENTS in Euro YEAR WISE NUMBER OF DEALS

    AVERAGE AMOUNT PER DEAL IN EURO

    2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008

    Early 521(7.6%) 1867(12.5%) 167(3%) 70(18.2%) 74(15.4%) 47(15.8%) 7.5 25.2 3.6

    Growth 1155(16.8%) 3055(20.4%) 667(12.1%) 96(25%) 120(25%) 55(18.5%) 12 25.5 12.1

    Late 2184(31.8%) 3715(24.8%) 3481(62.5%) 98(25.5%) 139(28.9%) 133(44.8%) 22.3 26.7 26

    Pre-IPO 137(2%) 543(3.6%) 255(6.6%) 14(3.7%) 30(6.2%) 8(2.7%) 9.8 18.1 31.9

    PIPE 1449(21.1%) 5031(33.6%) 889(16.1%) 91(23.7%) 104(21.6%) 49(16.5%) 16 48.4 18.1

    Buyout 1419(20.7%) 759(5.1%) 90(1.6%) 15(3.9%) 14(2.9%) 5(1.7%) 94.6 54.2 18.1

    GRAND TOTAL 6865 14970 5549 384 481 297 27.03 33.02 18.3

    2. There are huge PE investments in technology led, capital investment sectors like Telecom, Power and Infrastructure in addition to

    the sectors that were traditionally preferred by PE-VC investors like IT & ITES, Healthcare, etc.

    3. The rate of growth in number of deals is consistently lower than the growth rate of amount invested.

    4. The overall inclination in PE-VC investment is towards having lesser number of high quality deals of larger size and hence average

    amount per deal is rising steadily. Quite a few investments, mostly at late stage in industries like telecom and financial services have

    recently witnessed deal sizes unprecedented in Indian PE arena.

    5. Late stage and PIPE (Private Investment in Public Equity) deals are consistently bagging major share of PE-VC investments over the

    five year period, with late stage deals being the least affected even in the period of economic downturn, while early stage deals have

    suffered the most.

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    6. Huge proportion of investments in late and PIPE stages, coupled with very low share of early stage investments, highlights

    increasingly risk aversion nature of PE-VC investors, as well as the pressure on the fund managers to quickly exit from their

    investments.

    7. Buyout investments are comparatively very few in India and constitute only 3% of total number of PE investments deals. The

    trend is also consistent across the industry classes except for IT & ITES.

    8. Majority of early stage investments are contributed by domestic investors, while a large share of PIPE and buyout investments is

    funded by foreign investors, probably suggesting the tendency by foreign investors to invest in established businesses.

    Sector wise past trend Analysis from 2004 to 2008

    1 Financial Services; 7226

    2 Telecom Media; 5150 3 Engineering

    and Construction;

    4590

    4 IT &ITES; 3941

    5 Manufacturing;

    2890

    6 Non Financial Services; 1860

    7 Transportation Logistics; 1309

    8 Health Care; 1600

    9 Others; 1044 10 Hardware; 365

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    Sector wise Investments and Analysis from 2004 to 2008

    From the table above, it is evident that financial services were the favorite sector for PE from 2004 to 2008. Credit crunch for early

    startups in India has also lead to growth in financial services.

    Telecom media being the second most preferred area for PE has experienced some big money making exits. The most talked exits of

    PE are from BhartiAirtel followed by Engineering & Construction sector has changed the face of India. Since 2006, PE funds have

    invested approximately Euro13-billion, equivalent to one-fourth of the total capital flows to India in the infrastructure sector. Over

    the past three years, the power sector has attracted the most interest from PE investors, increasing to 45 per cent of total PE

    infrastructure investment between 2008 and 2010.

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    The investments led to the construction of the 6th largest airport of the world in New Delhi, road construction projects, support of

    metro projects by private players, etc. A growing middle class and their thrust to have their own house has fueled the growth in this

    sector; this drive has a direct implication on financial services - in terms of project and housing finance as well.

    IT &ITES has changed the industry outlook of India. Bangalore the second silicon valley of the world is helping India in topping the

    charts in exports of software. Lot of research and development is being done in this area, as industry wants to transform from mere

    service providers to innovators. Manufacturing has not seen much investment. As the Government is changing reforms and pushing

    their exports, we can expect to see lot of changes in this area in the near future.

    Present Scenario of PE in India

    Year 2010 saw Private Equity investments in India turn the corner, recovering to reach Euro 6.5 billion across 328 disclosed

    transactions from the low of Euro2.9 billion across 250 deals made in 2009 - a healthy rise of 124%.

    Year 2011 kicks off with the soaring numbers. First quarter saw private equity investments worth Euro 2.2 billion in the first three

    months of 2011 most of which went in the infrastructure, IT and manufacturing sectors. In all, 96 deals were made in the quarter

    with private equity deals worth about EURO 510 million confirmed in March, an increase of nearly 120 percent from the month

    before.

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    Private equity investments in the January-March quarter were about 57 percent higher than the Euro 1.43 billion worth of PE

    investment recorded over the same period in 2010 and more than double the Euro 1 billion accrued over last three months of 2010.

    25%

    13%

    9% 7%

    7%

    6%

    5%

    28%

    PE Investments by Industry - Q1'11 - Volume

    1 IT &ITES 2 Manufacturing 3 BFSI

    4 Energy 5 Engg.& Construction 6 Health care & Life Sciences

    7 Education 8 Others

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    During the quarter, PE firms obtained exit routes for their investments in 14 Indian companies, including one IPO (of PTC Financial

    Services). In comparison, there were 34 exits (including seven IPOs) in the first quarter of calendar year 2010.

    Conditions in place for the year ahead bode well for private equity in India to embark on that journey. Based on extensive

    interviews with industry experts and our own analysis, the Confederation of Indian Industry estimates that if India meets the

    challenges of creating a more hospitable environment for PE investment, private equity has the potential to fund up to Euro100

    billion over the next three years. (Report of Bain and Company 2010)

    Appendix 1 presents the investments of 5 most active PE fund in India in 2010

    Key findings from our analysis of PE-VC in the current scenario

    1. India saw the largest increase in deal activity among the big Asia-Pacific markets in 2010. Although still far below the 2007

    peak of Euro 15 billion, last years total deal value more than doubled from that of 2009 to Euro 6.5 billion, including venture

    capital, infrastructure PE investments and real estate investments.

    2. The fundamentals look auspicious for PE in India to continue to grow and evolve in 2011 and beyond. Short-term nervousness

    in the capital markets in 2011 and high priced corporate debt are expected to keep valuations down. That is likely to help

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    open up interesting deal-making opportunities for PE investors. Healthy macroeconomic conditions continue to support

    Indias status as a preferred destination for investors.

    3. Indias fundamentals will continue to attract eager PE investors and bolster the confidence of limited partners. The pace and

    strength of the industrys future growth would be accelerated if valuations in India become more attractive and exits continue

    to build on the momentum established in 2010.

    4. Indian promoters are gradually coming to recognize PE as a patient source of active capital that can help build their

    businesses. The PE industry will need to work closely with their investee companies and invest in further educating other

    Indian promoters about the PE and VC value proposition.

    5. Indias PE and VC industry is far from reaching its full potential. The biggest barrier holding it back is lack of regulatory support.

    Indian policymakers still do not regard PE and VC as a distinct asset class, nor have they given sufficient attention to creating a

    regulatory environment more conducive to the industrys growth.

    6. Investors appetite for exposure to Indias PE market remains strong. Some 120 PE funds are seeking to raise approximately

    Euro 23 billion in 2011. The bulk of new capital will continue to come from offshore investors that face fewer restrictions

    investing across sectors and are freer from complex tax and legal burdens.

    Present opportunity for PE firms in India

    Education:

  • Private Equity Report on India

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    Highly attractive with an estimated Euro27.2 billion market for private institutions. Over Euro204 million has been invested in

    Education ventures since 2006, and more than Euro544 million investments is being planned over the next 12 months. Presently we

    are witnessing PE investment flowing to the Education sector.

    Healthcare:

    Significant capabilities in India for clinical research are need of the hour. Low average number of hospital beds will bring in massive

    investment to build more hospitals throughout the country. Over Euro 466 million investments has taken place in this area since

    2004.

    Clean tech or renewable energy:

    There is a growing need for more reliable power supply throughout the country. Supportive regulations are providing a boost to

    clean tech/renewable energy. About Euro3.5 billion PE investments is expected over the next few years.

    Food processing:

    PE investors tend to like food companies as they grow fast and the business tends to be steady once a brand name has been

    established. Food is a secular business; it does not get affected by financial downturns. With their growth potential and profits,

    these companies are considered safe investments. Generally PE players have a lot of interest in the food businesses, but not many

    investable companies are available, as they are often cash-positive and do not need institutional capital.

    With global brands such as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. coming into India and organized retail being more or less dominated by companies

    such as the Future Group, Spencers Retail and Aditya Birla Retail Ltd, there is huge interest on backing their national or regional

    vendors in food sector.

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    Infrastructure

    Poor infrastructure makes Indian companies less competitive as compared to their global counterparts. However Infrastructure is set

    to be one of the biggest gainers of private equity (PE) investments in India in 2011, with fund managers expecting investment in the

    sector to grow at 25-50 per cent over the next 6-12 months.

    Private equity is well positioned to contribute to, and benefit from, the rapid growth of the infrastructure sector in India. Given the

    focus of the Central Government XIth and XIIth Five-Year Plans on the sector and the increasing role for private enterprise in

    infrastructure development, PE can be both an important source of capital, as well as a potent provider of capabilities and expertise.

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    Investment in infrastructure in India is growth investment, with the majority of assets still being built or in the Greenfield

    stage, unlike developed markets where the assets are already operational and generate a steady income.

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    Automotive sector

    Nearly every automobile company is investing at a higher rate than ever before to achieve a high growth trajectory. The overall

    investment in the sector has been increasing quite rapidly. In 2010 Indian automobile companies invested an amount of Euro 3.12

    billion.

    For example, MarutiUdyog had invested Euro 1.02 billion; Tata Motors invested of Euro 306 million in its compact car project. Not

    only Indian companies but also foreign players like Hyundai invested more than Euro 582 million in India

    Manufacturing sector

    India is ranked second in the world in terms of manufacturing capability, according to the 2010 Global Manufacturing

    Competitiveness Index by Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu and the US Council on Competitiveness. Indias workforce of scientists,

    researchers, and engineers, together with its English-speaking workforce and democratic regime, the report says, make it an

    attractive destination for manufacturers. In the last quarter of the year, the manufacturing industry showed positive results, despite

    less than impressive performance in other sectors.

    Growth in Indias manufacturing sector

    Approximately 50 sectors in Indias domestic manufacturing sector grew by 39 percent during the April December 2010 period,

    achieving the excellent growth category. These segments are air conditioners, natural gas, tractors, nitrogen fertilizers, ball

    bearings, electrical and cable wires, auto components, construction equipment, electric fans and the tire industry. Twenty-two

    segments entered the high growth group, registering a growth of 17.3 percent during the first nine months of the existing fiscal.

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    Industries such as utility vehicles, crude oil, power transformers, energy meters, alcoholic beverages and textile machinery have

    registered around 10-20 percent growth.

    Exports from Indian SEZs (Special Economic Zone) grew by over 68 percent (to EURO12.55 billion) as compared to the corresponding

    period of 2009-10.

    India is quickly rising as a worldwide manufacturing hub with a huge number of companies changing their manufacturing base to the

    country. Also India has the largest number of companies, outside of Japan, that have been recognized for excellence in quality. The

    government has issued the new Consolidated Foreign Direct Investment Policy, which came into effect April 1, 2010. The

    government is also planning to set up National Manufacturing and Investment Zones (NMIZs).

    In 2011 first quarter the largest PE investment in manufacturing sector were the Euro 680 million commitments by Bain Capital and

    Singapore's GIC to Hero Investments, the Hero group holding firm, which is to buyout Honda Motors' 26 per cent stake in listed 2-

    wheeler maker Hero Honda.

    Key driver for the growth of PE in India

    As per the Goldman Sachs research, India is the second largest growing economy in the world. With the IMF predicting growth of 6

    percent in 2011, Indias economy remains hugely attractive to both domestic and private investors. It has become a very attractive

    destination for global investors.

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    Drivers for the growth

    1. Relaxing the regulatory barriers of foreign investments in India.

    2. Consistently impressive GDP in excess of 9% till the first quarter of 2011 driven by

    - Huge capital inflow

    - Spurt in demand generated by growing Indian middle class with higher disposable incomes, resulting in higher purchasing

    power.

    - Human capital and competitiveness in high-growth sectors, with one of the best higher education systems in the emerging

    market and widespread knowledge of English

    - Higher number of people with university degree.

    - Abundance of entrepreneurial talent and high self-confidence.

    - Very high growth in sectors like Telecoms, ITES, Financial services, Real Estate, Infrastructure and Manufacturing.

    3. Political stability and other favorable macroeconomic variables like-

    - Sharp rise in foreign reserve due strong exports, it crossed Euro 136 billion mark in February 2011

    - Strong domestic savings investments rates further enhanced Indias reputations as one of the favored investment

    destination.

    The above factors coupled with excess liquidity during the economic boom world over from 2003 to 2007 and pressure to diversify

    internationally in the globalization era, has resulted in radical growth of PE investments in India till date.

    The cost effectiveness of emerging markets compared to mature market for building new business further boosted the inflow.

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    Key PE deal drivers in India

    1. The credit crunch The financial crisis is causing many business owners to reconsider Private Equity. There is a continued

    need for growth capital and with credit less available than it was, private investment offers a means to fill the gap.

    2. Succession issues As business culture changes, some owners choose to sell to a third party rather than pass on their business

    to family members.

    3. The need for scale Businesses are coming together to achieve scale in the market and capital is required to finance these

    deals.

    4. Rationalization Conglomerates are selling non-core units, which provide deal opportunities for Private Equity firms.

    Room for new PE players in the market

    The India PE market is dominated by non-Indian GPs, even though many large domestic GPs already exist in the market. A key

    explanation for this phenomenon is the tax regulations, which make it more conducive for GPs to be incorporated outside India. LPs

    consist of foreign players due to nonexistent Indian endowment funds; Indian pension funds are not permitted to invest in private

    equity.

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    Indian high net worth investors, on the other hand, prefer to invest in their own businesses or real estate. The Private Equity market

    in India has revealed a lot of potential, but also in India the economic downturn has caused a sharp fall in total PE activities. 2008

    saw a decrease of 44% in PE deal value compared to 2007, while the first half figures for 2009 showed less than 10% deal value of

    the whole of 2007. Nonetheless, with slowdown in funding from banks & IPOs, Private Equity is expected to remain a primary source

    of raising capitals in India and this leads to room for foreign players to enter the Indian market.

    Challenges for PE players in India

    India has large numbers of family run business. The biggest issue for the PE players is to deploy corporate governance in the family

    run organizations and in conservative companies. There is a perception that at least some of these companies lack the professional

    management, transparency and modern management systems that investors would expect elsewhere in the world. The Satyam

    scandal also raises concerns regarding family-managed listed firms. To some extent, the anxieties of General Partners are justified,

    but it would be misleading to suggest that poor governance is endemic in family-run or managed businesses.

    According to Bain and company survey, they find mismanaged expectations to be the biggest challenge for private equity deals.

    Strategic minority investments in smaller companies hold the potential for big pay offs. But shopped around by investment bankers,

    they are sold only to the highest bidder. And the purchase price begins to rise; the potential for returns starts to fall. Most deals are

    being intermediated, which invariably increase the level of competition for a deal which in turn, can have impact on the return.

    In fact, the rise of the Private Equity industry in India has fostered a greater awareness of governance issues and the requirements of

    investors. Companies seeking cash in order to grow have often recruited independent board members and invested in both

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    professional management structures and modern systems. As such, they have been preparing themselves for investment while

    gearing up for growth.

    However, some concerns are valid for particularly for international Private Equity firms. Players who have been involved in the

    Indian Private Equity industry for some time are better placed to identify the good from the bad having been on the ground and

    had firsthand experiences.

    Newcomers will necessarily have that knowledge and India is not a well-researched market. So, the only way for international

    General Partners to make the distinction between well and badly governed companies is to work with those people on the ground

    who have local knowledge and to undertake detailed on the ground due diligence.

    Without this information, there is a danger that international funds will be fully aware of potential governance pitfalls. Related to

    this is the challenge of working with family firms - the bulk of investments in India being minority stakes, providing growth capital. As

    a result, General Partners have only a limited amount of influence over the direction a company takes and may find it hard to drive

    through the measures necessary for faster growth. This problem may be compounded by the dynamics of relationships within family

    companies and investors should be wary of businesses where the owners are split on future strategy. Again, the key is to know the

    company, including family dynamics and the roles and responsibilities of continuing family members.

    The study indicates that there is a strong correlation between investments in PE-VC markets and capital markets. This trend is

    observed not only in developed markets like the US and UK but also in emerging markets like India and Brazil. It was also observed

    that even the sector wise trends PE investments in India are positively correlated with the movements of respective sector indices

    for most of the sectors.

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    Legalities for foreign PE players

    The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has relaxed rules on foreign direct investment (FDI). Under the new rule

    that came into force on 1 April 2011, foreign firms will not require an approval of their local partner while investing in the field

    where the joint venture operates. The government has also removed the need to subject certain conditions for 100% FDI in seeds

    and planting materials. In addition, the policy on local firms issuing shares to foreign firms has been relaxed, but needs to adhere to

    overseas direct investment regulations. The policy covers issuing shares for consideration other than cash.

    The norms for convertible instruments have been relaxed to encourage venture capital and private equity deals. Companies will be

    given the option of prescribing a conversion formula or specifying the price upfront for convertible instruments.

    Overview of Tax and Regulations in India

    Indias new government has published proposals for a series of tax reforms scheduled to come into force in 2011. The aim of the

    proposals currently at the consultation stage is to simplify the tax system, and in this sense the reforms are to be welcomed.

    However, from the perspective of both global and domestic investors, some proposed measures might give cause for concern. The

    government is committed to reducing corporation tax from 35 percent to 25 percent. They also wish to introduce a flat rate capital

    gains tax.

    In the past, companies were able to claim a tax holiday in the development stage of their business. However, under the new code,

    the government is proposing an asset-based tax that will apply to all companies. Although only two percent, this will

    disproportionately hit asset heavy businesses, even when those businesses are not making profits. Other losers include companies

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    that are currently exempt from capital gains tax. Under the new proposals all businesses will pay the flat rate. The reforms will also

    see the tax authorities given more power to crack down on tax avoidance structures.

    It is impossible to predict the final outcome of these reforms as their proposals are still at the consultation stage. But this in itself

    makes it difficult for businesses to restructure themselves in order to minimize their liability under the new rules. Those that do, run

    the risk of hitting tax avoidance regulations that have yet to be finalized.

    Generally, however, over the past few years, the Private Equity industry in India has been encouraged by deregulation. For example,

    the licensing system that restricted trading within sectors to a limited number of companies has largely been abandoned. This has

    encouraged competition by allowing entrepreneurs to challenge incumbents

    DTAA

    India has agreement of Double Tax Avoidance Agreement with many countries. This agreement helps international investors, private

    equity and venture capitalist players to save on domestic taxes (for e.g. such as capital gain tax), while routing their funds in out and

    the country.

    In short DTAA can be best used if entities are formed in Mauritius, Cyprus and Singapore. All three have their own pros and cons.

    For funds to be tax efficient we are consulting with KPMG consultant. Please find their proposal in attached file

    Flow of funds model in order to avail DTAA benefit

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    Opportunity for International PE players in India

    The old licensing system, which rigidly controlled ownership of companies within sectors, has now been largely abandoned. The

    subsequent freeing up of the economy has led to a surge in entrepreneurial activity. This in turn has created demand for capital

    coupled with the expertise, that can help ambitious companies grow.

    Private Equity firms provide much of this capital and expertise and international firms are particularly well placed to provide both, as

    they are seen as a gateway to both the international financial markets and a range of potentially valuable business contacts, ranging

    from suppliers and customers to potential partners. Drawing on their experience working with fast-growth businesses elsewhere in

    France

    Mauritius for example

    India

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    the world, international firms are also viewed as being able to provide help and advice on strategic issues. However, there is a caveat

    here. Indian business culture differs from that of the US and Europe. A deal acceptable to a business owner in London, California or

    Paris will not necessarily be acceptable in India. Global funds recruiting international expertise should also prepare to work closely

    with Partners in India or else set up an office staffed (at least in part) by professionals with experience of the domestic market.

    Deal opportunities

    Private Equity funds working in India to date have been for the most part limited to minority ownership deals. The buyouts that have

    characterized the industry in Europe and the US have been largely absent from the Indian market, a situation due in part to

    regulation preventing companies from borrowing to acquire. Therefore, as leverage in domestic transactions is not an option,

    neither is financial engineering. Equally important, Indias business owners traditionally seek to pass businesses on to family

    members rather than sell. On the plus side, the rapid growth in Indias economy offers both General and Limited Partners the

    prospect of healthy profits on minority stakes. Indeed, even in the downturn, General Partners in particular are bullish about

    potential profits, with 61 percent predicting returns of 25 percent or more in 2011.

    In the longer term, buyout opportunities are likely to increase as the business culture changes. We are beginning to see a new

    generation of owners less constrained by the traditional belief that selling a business is a sign of failure. Growing numbers of

    conglomerates selling non-core divisions may also boost the buyout market.

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    Due diligence and Valuation

    There are lots of consultancy companies available for due diligence and valuation services. The important thing before the DD

    process is conducted is that clear conditions have to put down on the Term Sheet.

    Due diligence can be performed in all the areas mentioned below

    Operations: efficiencies, improvement opportunities, system/process

    Market: market share, competitors, benchmarking, market positioning

    Management: team working, strategy, integrity

    Legal: legal liabilities,

    Technical: review of technical aspects, specific to sectors

    Human resources: IR issues, policies, pay benchmarking

    Environment: waste disposal, permits/ regulations, liabilities

    Exit opportunities

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    A successful and long established stock market provides Private Equity funds with a clear route to exit. There is also the opportunity

    for overseas listing. Again, international funds are particularly well placed to provide advice to investee companies on IPOs

    elsewhere in the world albeit 51 percent of international General Partners and 42 percent of local General Partners prefer strategic

    sales to IPOs (32 percent of General Partners and 22 percent of local funds respectively).SEBI (Security Exchange Board of India) is

    well organized body which takes care of IPO regulations in India.

    5 forces Analysis for Private Equity Company in India

    Industry competition

    Entry Barrier

    Power of suppliers

    Threats of subsitutes

    Power of buyer

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    Entry barrier

    The main barriers to entry for PE in India are complex regulatory issues and an increasing number of PE players looking at the same

    investment opportunities. Nevertheless, it could be argued that setting up investments and exiting investments in India is easier

    compared with other PE emerging economies. Although the perception is that there are too many PE houses chasing few good

    deals, capital is not in short supply and there are today several other fundraising options available to owner- managed businesses

    looking for growth capital investment. Further, a large number of corporate and large conglomerate Indian business groups are still

    skeptical of the role that PE can play. This latter situation needs to change as it is likely that those corporate that have a global

    business strategy will need to link up with PE in order to execute their global expansion aspirations. For foreign PE players to enter

    Indian market is not an easy task due to the large differences in culture and trade practices compared to western countries. Lack of

    understanding of the Indian market (behavior norms, legal, tax, .) makes the task more difficult. Indian PE players still does not have

    good relationships with foreign LPs other than few top players. Entry barrier in terms of setting up a company is not very difficult,

    but running successful operations totally depends on the experience and quality of the team in India.

    Threat of substitutes

    In this case the threat can be from Indian banks, NBFC, Angel investors and Indian VCs. Banks and NBFC do not much possess much

    of a threat, as they are highly risk averse. Angel investors and Indian VCs are still emphasizing on growth stage companies.

    Power of Buyer

    In this case it will be the entrepreneur. Power lies with him as he has to decide who to partner with, but if we come to some kind of

    value addition with our European experience; it will change the whole game. Things must be clear at the time of negotiating with the

    entrepreneur to avoid power struggle later.

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    Power of supplier

    In this case it will be LPs and sponsors. We have to convince them and once they commit things become easy for us.

    Competitiveness of the Industry

    There is a huge competition between the industry players to get the quality of deals. To overcome this we really need to be well

    equipped (training, network, consultants etc.), focus where to invest and see how we can add value with our collective team effort.

    The ability to source proprietary deals will assume increasing importance in the face of increasing competition. The Indian business

    environment is driven by relationships; the level of comfort that a senior PE individual can bring to the owner of a target business

    that is seeking funds can go a long way to consummating a deal. Therefore, new PE houses setting up shop in India should

    appreciate the importance of hiring the right country head and having local teams on the ground.

    SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis of Private Equity Company entry in the Indian market.

    Strength Opportunity

    Weakness Threat

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    Strength

    Availability of liquidity

    Wealth of investment experience with the team members in Foreign PE.

    Ready set up in India.

    In depth experience of operational and entrepreneurial back ground of Indian team members.

    Strong will to set up a fund for India.

    Weakness

    Lack of Indian/global experience within Foreign PE team.

    Lack of PE investment and exit cycle in the current Indian team

    Opportunity

    India is the fastest emerging market in the world.

    Lot of synergy can be built with the present portfolio companies and the future investments in India

    Value creation can be done in the investment company by giving them exposure to European market, Chinese office, global

    strategy and corporate governance.

    Growing and large entrepreneurial spirit in India.

    Favorable economics, demographics, political situation and efficient exchange board in India.

    Threat

    New Implication of DTC

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    Growing number of PE players in India. Capital is available in abundance and PE players need to distinguish themselves to win

    deals.

    Lack of governance among the business family and entrepreneurs.

    Proposed USP of Private Equity Company in India

    Capital.

    Operational and strategy building for entrepreneurs.

    Exposure to European and Chinese market through the network.

    For exit, strategic alliance with European partner/ buyer, IPO overseas, selling equity to foreign fund.

    Corporate governance and strategic exposure with the global outlook.

    Recommendation

    From this report it is evident that it was a comeback for PE in 2010 and 2011 started with impressive investment numbers. Indian PE

    has re-emerged in good shape from the testing times of the global credit meltdown and subsequent economic retrenchment. Deal

    activity has rebounded more quickly than in other Asia-Pacific markets, the exit markets are healthier than ever and capital

    continues to pour into an expanding number of domestic and international PE funds.

    While the period ahead looks bright, it remains to be seen whether current conditions will prove to be a sturdy platform for

    sustained growth. Certainly the Indian growth story remains on track and continues to attract PE interest. New opportunities in

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    several under-penetrated sectors like infrastructure, financial services, healthcare and manufacturing are waiting to be tapped and

    appear to be generating an increased level of PE engagement.

    The PE industry itself is demonstrating interesting signs of growth and evolution. The number of domestic funds continues to

    expand, GPs with experience gained in the global PE funds are spinning out new breakout funds and promoters are warming up to

    the idea that PE partners are more than just another source of capital and can help them achieve exceptional growth, way beyond

    what the promoters can achieve alone. But for all of the change and novelty the industry has witnessed, some characteristics specific

    to India PE appear to remain firmly fixed and continue to challenge PE investors, promoters and policymakers. For example, PE deal

    making will continue to expand, but for the foreseeable future deal size will remain smallmostly in the Euro 20 million to Euro 30

    million rangeand acquisitions will be limited to minority stakes. As competition to purchase high-quality assets intensifies, PE firms

    need to continue to find ways to demonstrate what makes them distinctive and superior to other providers of capital.

    For those PE funds that are not currently investing in the Indian market, the issue is not if, but will be a good time to enter the

    market, as we experience lot of developments happening in India, in many different spheres. In order to be efficient our fund need

    to be well structured in order to be tax efficient. The Management team should be well guided, trained, experienced and motivated

    to get better results from investments.

    In order to optimize funds performance we need to formulate key issues such as:

    Size of the fund for India?

    Size of deal?

    What should the investments focus be?

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    Key investment techniques and negotiations

    How can we create value and minimize the risk in the portfolio?

    Determining the right time for exit and its appropriate strategy

    Who should be on the team?

    Should we create USPs such as Cross border deals?

    How do we enhance the market reputation and perception of portfolio companies?

    India can be a platform for Private Equity Company to get its global wings due to its growing economy; it can be a secondary market

    to present portfolio companies, availability of talent pool in India, geographical location, large English speaking population etc. These

    all factors if well utilized and groomed, they can transform in to sustainable competitive advantage for Private Equity Company.

    Conclusion

    This is an exciting time to be involved in private equity (PE) in India.

    According to a recent study over 366 PE firms currently operate in India and another 69 have raised or are in the process of raising

    funds. Large global PE investors are either setting up dedicated Indian funds or increasing allocations for Indian investments in their

    global portfolios. Fund sizes have increased dramatically from Euro 25 to Euro 100 million just a few years ago, to between Euro 400

    million and Euro 1 billion. Average deal sizes have also increased to about Euro 50 million in 2007, while the average deal size was

    Euro 8 million in 2002.

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    Starting from a meager five deals and a total investment of Euro 20 million in 1996, Euro 11 billion was invested across 339 deals1 in

    2007, making India one of the top seven PE investment destinations in the world. According to a recent study, there are over 366 PE

    firms currently operating in India and another 69 have raised or are in the process of raising funds, cumulatively offering Euro 30

    billion for investments in India from July 2007 through December 2010.

    The strong economic interest in India has resulted in a bullish stock market that has facilitated successful PE exits but has increased

    valuation expectations. Today, there is a healthy mix of auction-based and proprietary-based transactions in India. Most PE houses

    are sector-agnostic although, to differentiate themselves in an increasingly crowded marketplace, a few sector focussed PE houses

    are now establishing themselves in the country. As the strong global interest in India continues and competition for deals increases,

    the challenges will be to differentiate, source good proprietary deals, and, most importantly, nurture portfolio investments.

    Our research found that PE houses felt restricted in India by the predominance of family-owned businesses, lack of large buyout

    opportunities, and restrictions on the financial leverage that buyers can use. Despite this, however, 63 percent of the 119 PE firms

    say they would be targeting India in the next five years compared with 37 percent having investments in India currently.

    The Indias economy continues to accelerate, and the PE opportunity grows. The emerging market in India is one of the most

    interesting PE stories. The Indian PE market is attractive for many reasons: its entrepreneurial status; the associated ease and

    benefits of an English-speaking culture; an investment base that truly understands the multiple opportunities for PE; and a

    developing infrastructure with strong underlying economic growth. These opportunities are compounded when we consider the

    tougher market conditions elsewhere in more traditional PE territories. The future for a prosperous PE market in India is very bright

    indeed.

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    Appendix 1

    Macquarie-SBI Infrastructure Fund

    Number of Deals: 3

    Deal value: $531 million

    The joint venture between Macquarie Capital, State Bank of India and the International Finance Corporation, that targets

    investments in infrastructure and allied assets, struck three deals in telecom tower business, airport infrastructure and power. The

    firms over half a billion dollar investments included a $300-million transaction to buy around 11% stake in Viom Networks, that

    brought together the passive telecom infrastructure businesses of Quippo Telecom Infrastructure Ltd and Tata Teleservices under

    one roof last year. The fund that had its initial close in April 2009 had said it was raising further capital with the target of having

    commitment of $1.5 billion at the end of the capital raising period. One of the few large infrastructure-only funds that are seeking

    investment opportunities in the country, Macquarie SBI Infrastructure Fund comes with a strong parentage and high quality

    investors backing the fund managers. Given the large investment appetite in the country for improving the infrastructure to support

    high growth in the coming years, we have certainly not heard the last of Macquarie SBI Infra Fund that may continue to be among

    the chartbusters in the coming year too.

    Temasek Holdings Advisors India Pvt. Ltd.

    Number of Deals: 5

    Deal value: $ 462.3 million

    One of the two sovereign wealth funds of Singapore, Temasek was back among the top investors charts after going slow for the last

    two years. The firm (among the most active sovereign funds in India) spread its investments across financial infrastructure,

    healthcare, power and construction. Its two biggest deals included the $200-million transaction in GMR Energy besides a deal to buy

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    5% stake held by New York Stock Exchange in National Stock Exchange. It also invested in Max India, Sobha Developers and a project

    of Lodha Group.

    The sovereign fund--that last year changed its global charter what analysts viewed as Temasek downplaying its links to government

    policy or strategic interests as it eyes more overseas investmentshas assets under management of over $140 billion (as per its

    website). The bounceback in global stock markets allowed Temaseks portfolio value rocket 43% to its highest level ever for the year

    ended March10 but also saw profits shaved by a fourth. The fund that counts marquee names of Indian business among its portfolio

    has Asia at the centre of its investment focus and with India playing a key role. Temasek is likely to continue as a leading investor in

    the near term.

    Blackstone Advisors India Pvt. Ltd

    Number of deals: 4

    Deal value: $431 million

    The top bracket buyout firm that made some untimely management buyouts and other investments in the so-called wrong sectors

    at the peak of the stock market boom has not let some setbacks bother it much. It struck one of the single biggest investment ever

    by a private equity firm in the sunrise sector of power by picking a stake in Moser Baer Projects Pvt Ltd for $300 million. Add to it its

    investment in Monnet Power Co and you get the drift, Blackstone is genuinely bullish on power sector in India. Blackstone also

    invested in agri related firm REI Agro and struck a deal in the mass media space by investing in Jagran Media Network Pvt Ltd, the

    holding firm for Jagran Prakashan. Although this $50-million deal was just about a fifth of its failed deal to buy a stake in Ushodaya

    Enterprises which owns Eenadu group in Andhra Pradesh three years ago, 2010 was the biggest year for Blackstone that has

    invested over $1.25 billion in the past five years.

    Olympus Capital Holdings Asia

    Number of deals: 2

    Deal value: $308 million

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    The independent middle market private equity firm that has invested over $1.3 billion in over 30 portfolio companies throughout

    Asia, including China, India, Japan and South Korea, has made one of its biggest investment commitments in India this year. Its $300-

    million partnership with Tata Power comes at a time when almost everyone is betting on energy. The firm, that also counts among

    its portfolio firms Quattro BPO, crane moving services firm Sanghvi Movers and Orient Green Power, set up its India office two years

    ago and looks set to surprise the markets with few standalone large deals in the future too.

    Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.

    Number of deals: 3

    Deal value: $289 million

    The firm most synonymous with the clan of global buyout giants had been sewing few big transactions every two years. It didnt

    disappoint in 2010 when private equity firms entered a more mature investment territory in India. KKR, that has in the past

    completed buyout of Flextronics Software Systems and later invested a large sum in Bharti Infratel along with other investors such as

    Temasek, cut multiple deals in India this year spread across power, hospitality-cum-retail and cement businesses.

    Its biggest transaction was co-investing around $200 million in Coffee Day Resorts (holding company of Caf Coffee Day besides

    operating firm of hotels and resorts) along with New Silk Route and Standard Chartered Private Equity. It also put in money as pre-

    IPO deal in Avantha Power & Infrastructure, the power arm of Gautam Thapar-led Avantha Group and took a contrarian call by

    investing in the cement business of Dalmias. Having roped in former chief of Citibank in India Sanjay Nayar, KKR is likely to be a more

    permanent figure among the top PE firms in India.

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    CONTACT US:

    ADVENT UK LTD

    Patricia Goodenough, President. pg@advent-uk.com

    Anuj Arora, Indian Project Development. aa@advent-uk.com

    LONDON OFFICE: Suite 8, 28 Old Brompton Road, London SW7 3SS. Tel: +442078013080

    PARIS HUB: 15 Rue Clement Bayard, 92300 Levallois, FRANCE. Tel : +33147489197

    Registration N 3485818, Registered office Penhurst House, 352 Battersea Park Road, London SW11 3BY.

    Skype: adventuk

    mailto:pg@advent-uk.com

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