primacystudies andhra pradesh

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Maitreyi.Y 12AR60R21Somreeta Das 12AR60R35



The urban system of any region is characterised by the dominance of one city which is called 'primate city'. Primacy is present when the largest city is twice the population of the one that is second in the rank.

A country's leading city is always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling. The primate city is commonly at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant. - Mark Jefferson, 1939

Primacy exists when a system of small towns and cities is dominated by one large city (Jefferson, M. 1939). G. K. Zipf (1949) gave a mathematical explanation to the law of primate city. It is called rank-size rule. According to this if all towns in a region are arranged in descending order by population, the size of the town is 1/r the size of the largest town, according to the series 1, 1/2,1/ 3, 1/4........ 1/r.


Andhra Pradesh

Developing Urban System in Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad Urban region covering Telangana areaVijayawada-Guntur region covering the Delta areas of Coastal AndhraVishakhapatnam Urban region covering Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam.Kurnool-Nellore Urban region which covers entire Rayalaseema region.

Population(2011)Total84,655,533Density310/km2(800/sqmi)HDI0.572 (medium)HDI rank20th (2005)


CITY / TOWNPOPULATIONRANKHyderabad68,09,9701 Vishakapatnam 17,30,3202Vijayawada14,91,2023Warangal 7,59,5944Nellore 5,64,1485Rajamundry4,78,1996Guntur4,71,1007Tirupati4,59,9858Kakinada4,42,9369Vizianagaram2,39,37410

2011 CensusCITY / TOWNPOPULATIONRANKHyderabad16,12,2761 Vishakapatnam 3,63,4672Vijayawada3,34,0003Warangal 2,07,5205Nellore 1,13,6008Rajamundry1,89,0006Guntur2,69,9004Tirupati71,70010Kakinada1,64, 2007Vizianagaram86,5009

1971 Census

Andhra Pradesh

Source: (1991) (2001) (2011) Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner

Analysis for Primacy: City Ranks in 1971 and 2011

Annexure 8.1. Source: Census of India, Government of IndiaCITYRANK AS PER POPULATIONPROMOTION / DEMOTION19712011Hyderabad11Vishakhapatnam22Vijaywada33Warangal54Nellore85Rajahmundry66Guntur47Tirupati108Kakinada79Vizianagaram910

Population of citiesPopulation of cities19712011

Analysis for Primacy: Log Linear Relationship for 1971 & 2011 data

Annexure 8.1. Source: Census of India, Government of IndiaThe primacy index can be calculated by the following formula:PI = C1/ (C1 + C2 + C3 + C4) * 100

In 1971,PI=16,12,276/(16,12,276+ 3,63,467+ 3,34,000+ 2,07,520)*100 = 64 > 50

In 2011,PI=68,09,970/(68,09,970+17,30,320+14,91,202+7,59,594)*100 = 63.1 > 50.

Hence, Hyderabad is a Primate City

Vishakapatnam, Vijayawada and cities from the other growth regions do not follow the rank size rule.

The order of primacy is much higher as compared to the ideal condition.



It is observed that the population of the Capital city of Hyderabad is much higher than the second and third rank cities (almost 4 times).

Post Independence, Hyderabad gained prominence from Telangana region only.

After formation of AP in 1956, there was a considerable shift from Andhra and Rayalaseema regions towards Hyderabad where many industries were setup and scope for job opportunities were higher.

Yet, Vishakapatnam retained its pace of growth being an important port town along the eastern coast.

Vijayawada became a secondary centre for development as it emerged as an important railway junction connecting northern and southern parts of the country. Also it is an important commercial centre for the Andhra region.

Similarly, Nellore is growth centre of Rayalaseema region.

Guntur, Vizianagaram and Kakinada portrayed a decline in population growth rate (relative) owing to the presence of higher order cities of Vijayawada and Vishakhapatnam in their vicinity.

- In future, if a new state of Telangana emerges, it shall result in the development of Vijayawada and Vishakapatnam , as probable capitals for the state of AP. The speculations have triggered a population rise in these regions already. It is visible from the real estate pricing boom in these areas.

Thank YouReferences

Annexure 8.1. Source: Census of India, Government of India Census of India Website (1991) (2001) (2011) Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner Census of India 1931, 1971 Provisional Population Tables 1991


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